Short Biographical Sketches Published in 1918

Submitted by Lisa Slaski

Source: "Historical Sketches of Franklin County And Its Several Towns With Many Short Biographies," by Frederick J. Seaver Malone, New York, Albany, J. B. Lyon Company Printers, Copyright 1918

Note that these short biographical sketches are provided in the same order that they were published within the book. They are mostly alphabetical, but mainly grouped by the first letter of the last name, not strictly alphabetical by the entire spelling of the last name.


Frederick P. Allen was born in Tinmouth, Vt., December 23, 1798, and became a printer's apprentice in Plattsburgh in 1812 — continuing thereafter to work at the trade or in publishing and editing until 1844. Mr. Allen participated in the battle of Plattsburgh in 1814, and a cherished evidence of the fact was a musket granted to him by the government for the service. He came to Malone in March, 1835, and established the Palladium as the successor of the Northern Spectator, which a brother had founded and conducted for a couple of years previously. He continued in the business until 1844 or 1845, when he sold to Francis T. Heath. The employees of such an establishment in those days were few, and those that Mr. Allen employed were almost all taken into his own home, and made almost members of his family. At least two of them he came to regard as foster sons, and they to look to him as a father. And throughout his long life he was especially interested in the young, watching over many with loving kindness, and proffering them advice in a manner that never seemed obtrusive. No more helpful citizen in this regard ever lived in Malone. Mr. Allen was for more than thirty years a justice of the peace, and his decisions usually stood the test of review and appeal, as they were invariably based upon his conception of right and justice. In uprightness of life, interest in the welfare of the town and its people, in the example he was and the influence he exercised, he was a man of remarkable usefulness, and commanded respect and even veneration. He was postmaster for three years from 1841, and again from 1849 to 1853. He died May 7, 1878.

William Andrus, born in Malone September 27, 1806, was the son of Cone Andrus, an early settler. He drove the mail coach and stage for Jonathan Thompson over the route from Plattsburgh to Ogdensburg for a few years earlier than 1832, and in 1840 became himself one of the proprietors of the line, which he operated until 1850 or a little later. In 1839 he was elected sheriff, and in 1851 and again in 1852 was defeated for the Assembly, though running largely ahead of his ticket against a very popular Democrat. The majority against him in the former year was 82, and in the latter 33. Mr. Andrus was supervisor of Malone for 17 terms, though not of continuous service. la I860 he was elected to the Assembly, but in 1861 patriotically declined a renomination so that a Union county ticket might be named, with Albert Andrus, a Democrat, at its head. Mr. Andrus never engaged actively in business apart from stage driving and fanning, and except also in the sale of village lots carved from the extensive tracts which his father had once owned, and which comprised a considerable part of that section of the present village lying east of the river. Returns from investments, the lot sales and farming gave him a competence, and the last twenty years of his life were comparatively inactive. Extremely social (everybody knew him aa "Uncle William"), and finding his greatest enjoyment in calling upon friends at their homes, offices or stores, Mr. Andrus probably knew more of the affairs of his neighbors, as well as of local public concern, than any other man in the town. His judgment was sound, and his character without reproach. He was intensely interested in politics, and unswervingly a Whig and Republican. He died March 10, 1884.

Albert Andrus was the son of Cone Andrus, who was a pioneer, and who gave Arsenal Green to the State. He became a merchant at Malone at an early age, after having gained experience as a clerk in Vermont and in Michigan. Shrewd, careful and possessed of excellent practical judgment, his merchandising was successful, and he accumulated a comfortable fortune as wealth is measured in a rural community. He became a director of the 0. & L. C. R. R., and was interested largely in banks in Malone and elsewhere. He was the Democratic nominee for the Assembly a number of times prior to the civil war, but as such was always defeated by small majorities. In 1861 he was nominated for the Assembly by the Union party, composed of Republicans and war Democrats, was elected, and was re-elected in 1862 and 1863. He made a fine record, and was recognized as one of the leading and most useful members. Franklin county presented his name for Senator in 1865, but St. Lawrence county, doubting his Republicanism, refused to accept him. He then became an "Andy" Johnson man, and for a time was the recognized administration representative in this section, but soon afterward identified himself with the Democracy again, and after a few years ceased to take an active interest in politics, and devoted himself quietly to business affairs. He died at Malone July 19, 1889, in his 75th year.

George S. Adams was born in Bangor in 1817, and came to Malone in 1844, where he studied law, and was admitted to the bar. In his younger years he was a Democrat, and his suavity and studious avoidance of antagonisms and controversy made him one of the most popular men in the county. For a number of years he was clerk of the board of supervisors, and in 1850 was defeated for the Assembly by William A. Wheeler, but only by a small majority. He was elected county judge by the Knownothings in 1854, and during his term of office became a Republican. He removed to Burke, where he kept a hotel and engaged in the lumber business, losing the small property that he had accumulated. Returning to Malone, he again engaged in the practice of the law, but never regained his prestige and prominence. He died February 1C, 1888.

J. Foster Atwood, born in Royalton, Vt., came to Malone in 184.9, and became one of the town's best known, most successful and best liked farmers. Genial, companionable and always eager to do a friend a service, and intensely interested in music, he won general esteem, and enjoyed a wide popularity.

Oscar P. Ames, born in Salisbury, Vt., March 17, 1841, came to Malone in 1857 to learn the printers' trade. During the civil war he served as a lieutenant in the 98th regiment until incapacitated by ill health, and also for a time as clerk in the commissary department . After his return to Malone he engaged for a year or two in the grocery business, and then re-entered the employ of the Palladium. In 1877 he became one of the publishers of the paper, and so continued until his death. A man who always did his own thinking, with great tenacity of purpose, and of such an intensity of earnestness in any matter that excited his interest and seemed to require action that his expression of opinion was apt to suggest passionate anger, he was a force to be reckoned with, and was an excellent and useful -citizen. He was a special United States treasury agent for four years from 1890, and made an efficient officer. He died January 29, 1899.

Frank D. Allen, born in Malone January 21, 1862, studied law with Judge Hobbs after having graduated from Franklin Academy and Hamilton College, and then located in New York city as a clerk in the office of Davies & Rapallo, of which firm the late Charles A. Gardiner became a member. Upon Mr. Gardiner's retirement from the firm to become counsel for the Metropolitan Elevated Railroad Company, Mr. Allen went with him. to be managing clerk in the office, in which scores of attorneys and clerks were employed. Mr. Allen is now with the great Interborough Rapid Transit Company as assistant to the attorney and counsel — a responsible and highly complimentary position — and has "made good" in it.

Frederick L. Allen, born in Malone November 27, 1863, is a graduate of Franklin Academy and Hamilton College; and after admission to the bar removed to New York city, where he was associated with Davies, Stone & Auerbach for some years. Twenty-odd years ago he was appointed assistant to the general solicitor of the Mutual Life Insurance Company, and about ten years ago was advanced to be himself the general solicitor, a remarkable selection for a comparatively young man. Mr. Allen has an excellent professional standing at the New York bar, and his work in his present position has been of a markedly high grade.

Roswell Bates, born in Rutland, Vt., June 13, 1788, located as a young man at Fort Covington, and not only gained prominence locally as a physician as early as 1820, but came to rank high in the profession throughout Northern New York. He was a thorough student, and painstaking and competent in research and experiment. A number of the early physicians of the county studied with him and were trained by him. A man of great force of character, stubborn and combative, he was often in controversy, and always able to hold his own. He died June 6, 1869.

Daniel Brown, born in Alburgh, Vt., November 5, 1798, came to Malone in his young manhood, and in 1828 bought for thirty dollars the lot on the corner of Main and Catherine streets, where Hubbard & Mallon were for so long engaged in trade, and erected on it a carriage and sleigh shop. Mr. Brown lacked the temperament to engage actively 'in politics or conspicuously in public affairs, though he was always interested in both, and in an unobtrusive way was helpful by counsel and by contributions in promoting village and town matters. As a rule, however, his business and the church engrossed most of his attention. He had sound judgment, and his walk in life was upright and exemplary. He died March 5, 1869.

Sidney P. Bates was born at Derby, Vt., February 16, 1815. His father died before his birth, and his mother only a-few weeks afterward, when he was adopted by an uncle (the father of Dr. Roswell Bates of Fort Covington), and came to Malone with him in 1820 or 1821. He studied medicine with Dr. Roswell Bates, attended lectures in Vermont, and then practiced there for seven years — returning to Malone in 1847, where he ever afterward made his home. As a physician he was in the front rank of the profession in his time, and "his tact, management and humor in the sick room wore exquisite." His interest in educational matters was pronounced, and the work that he wrought for the improvement of our common schools was great. He was superintendent of schools for the town of Malone for seven years under the old township system, and, almost single handed and against the combined opposition of practically every man of influence and standing in the community, carried through the project for consolidation of the schools in the village of Malone, and the creation of our graded school system. Later he was recognized by everybody as having been right, and the change as having been wise. Dr. Bates was school commissioner for the first commissioner district from 1861 to 1867, and again to fill a vacancy in 1870 —making a fine record. About ten years prior to his death he was thrown from his sleigh while returning from a night call upon a patient, and sustained injuries which crippled him, and after a time confined him to his bed. He died February 1, 1894.

Henry N. Brush, born in New York city March 12, 1810, was a graduate of Columbia College in the class with Hamilton Fish, and located in Moira in 183o. He owned at one time the mile square which includes the hamlet of Brushton, originally called Brush's Mills in compliment to the owner. After the removal of Luther Bradish, he became the foremost man in the town with the exception of Sidney Lawrence. An obituary of him in the Palladium at the date of his death said: "In all of his instincts a gentleman; a man of infinite zest, kind and genial in all his relations." He died November 2, 1872.

H. Corbin Brush, son of Henry N., was born in Brushton in 1838. and always made his home there. He had large property interests, and to the care of these applied most of his energies and time. Finely educated, possessing exceptional business abilities, genial, companionable and public spirited, Mr. Brush enjoyed the respect of everybody, and was of great usefulness in the hamlet that was his home. He died April 19, 1898.

George D. Bell, born at Weybridge, Vt., in 1818, located in Malone in 1830. He was a farmer, but spent his winters for a long time in teaching village and country schools. Singularly mild and even tempered, though firm on every question of principle, and always upright and just, he was popular and respected. He died April 1, 1897.

S. E. Blood, born at Hebron, N. H., June 4, 1822, came to Fort Covington in 1853, and entered the employ of William Hogle as a clerk, after which he engaged in the merchant tailoring business for a number of years. From 1863 to 1869 he was clerk in a hotel of Sam. Browning at Tadousac, Que., and in the latter year was appointed deputy collector of customs at Fort Covington. Of quiet manner, excellent judgment and forceful action, he was long a leading citizen of the place, and not the least important of the little group of possibly a half dozen men who for years practically controlled the action of the Republican party in the town. He died March 4, 1897.

William Henry Barney, born at Richmond, Vt., August 5, 1838, came to Bangor about twenty years later. His father was landlord of the hotel at North Bangor, and William had a share in its management. He enlisted as first lieutenant in the 98th regiment, and was promoted to a captaincy. Upon his return from the army he engaged in trade at North Bangor with Baker and Clinton Stevens, and afterward continued the business with them in Malone. He was later in the photographic business, and in insurance, and was postmaster. For a time he was captain of the old 27th Sep. Co., N. G. S. N. Y., and in a number of political campaigns was first tenor in the famous Republican glee club of Malone. He went West in 1897, and for a number of years was a conductor on the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railroad. He then lived a life of leisure at Albuquerque, New Mexico, until 1917, when he returned East.

William D. Brennan, born at Gloucester, Ont., December 29, 1839V came to Malone in 1851, and began life here as a water carrier for a gang of men who were completing work on the newly built railroad. Afterward he accepted employment of whatever sort he could get, always of a menial sort until his cheerful alacrity and quick intelligence had attracted attention, and brought him better opportunities. He worked his way through Franklin Academy, and was a student at Middlebury College when his patriotic impulses took him into the army. He was commissioned a lieutenant in the 142d regiment, was promoted to a captaincy, and later was brevetted major. There was no braver man in the army. At the battle of Chapin's Farm in 1864 he lost a leg. Upon the conclusion of his army service he became professor of mathematics in the academy at Potsdam, and pursued the study of law while teaching. He was admitted to the bar in 1866, and located at Malone — gaining an excellent rank at the bar, building up a large practice, and commanding the respect and confidence of his clients and of the community generally. Major Brennan was county treasurer for nine years from 1867, and in 1878 was elected to the Assembly, followed by two re-elections. He was a hard-working, conscientious representative, and in his third term was chairman of the committee on ways and means, a distinction up to that time enjoyed by no other Franklin county member since Mr. Wheeler's incumbency of the same assignment thirty years before. At the time of this appointment Mr. "Wheeler was a candidate for United States Senator, with Major Brennan in charge of his canvass, while the Speaker was for Mr. Platt, and desired an early caucus, which the friends of Mr. Wheeler generally felt was prejudicial to his interests. However, Major Brennan signed the call for the caucus, and was severely criticised therefore. This criticism manifestly weighed upon him, and, added to the fact that he had not been well for some months, broke him down. Melancholia developed, he had to relinquish his work at Albany early in February, and returned to Malone to recuperate. March 7, 1881, he started for a ride to and through Duane, and committed suicide by taking strychnia. Major Brennan held strong convictions on all questions, and for a dozen years was one of the most effective and popular campaign speakers in the county, was always deeply interested in all matters affecting Malone and the county, and personally was esteemed by everybody.

Charles A. Burke, born in Bombay January 21, 1843, worked on a farm and attended Fort Covington Academy in his youth, and then studied law. Admitted to the bar in 1868, he practiced in a small way at Hogansburgh and elsewhere in the northern part of the county for a couple of years — finally locating in Malone in 1870, in partnership with Henry G. Kilburn, and having continued to practice here ever since. At one time he also operated a planing mill and sash and door factory in company with John Kelley. Mr. Burke has always been a pronounced 1 Democrat, and in younger years was one of the most active and influential workers in that party. lie was often chairman of the -county committee, and during the first Cleveland administration was postmaster of Malone.

Charles Webster Breed, born at Leominster, N. H., May 19, 1844, removed in his youth to Plattsburgh with his parents, and while enjoying an outing at Chateaugay Lake engaged to enter a drug store at Chateaugay as clerk. When the 96th regiment was being organized at Plattsburgh in 1861 Mr. Breed joined it with a number of others whom he had helped to recruit at Chateaugay, and was commissioned a first lieutenant. Sickness compelled him to resign from, the service, and, returning home, he located in Malone, where he has since continued to reside, and for the greater part of the time was conspicuous in the town's business and civic affairs. He was in the drug business for more than a generation, became as he gained means and standing a zealous advocate of the establishment of industrial works in the village, and for many years gave excellent service to the Republican party as a member of its county committee and as a campaign organizer. Mr. Breed had initiative in large measure as well as superior executive capacity, and his pride in Malone and interest in its welfare were intense. He was for years the foreman and leading spirit of one of the crack companies of the old volunteer fire department, which owed its excellence in large part to his efforts, and later served as the department's chief engineer. To Mr. Breed's planning and advocacy was chiefly due the reorganization of the department upon lines which still continue — with a semi-paid force, an electric fire alarm system, and horse service for hauling the apparatus. He was also one of the group of a half dozen earnest, public-spirited men who secured for the village a reorganized waterworks system, with Horse brook as its source of supply, and was the president of the new company for a dozen years or more. Mr. Breed had an active interest in our schools, and served on the board of education with efficiency. Since the purchase of the waterworks by the village Mr. Breed has led a retired life, but without losing any of his interest for Malone's welfare and prosperity.

William C. Breed, son of Charles W., was born in Malone June 24, 1871. After graduation at Franklin Academy and Amherst College, he began the study of law in New York, with Edward H. Hobbs, a former Malone man, and in 1898 opened an office in New York on his -own account. His progress in the profession was marked from the beginning, and after a few years his rank was recognized as well toward the top of the younger practitioners. Latterly he has had great prominence as the legal representative of large trade and industrial interests, both in court procedure and in conference and negotiation with governmental departments at 'Washington and with Congressional committees concerning legislation and interpretation of anti-trust statutes. Mr. Breed is now recognized as one of the ablest and most valued of attorneys concerning these and similar policies, and his opinions always count strongly with the big men with whom he is in frequent association. Appointed chairman of the New York city committee of one hundred to organize and prosecute the big May drive for the hundred million dollar Red Cross fund, Mr. Breed enlisted his workers, planned the methods to be employed, and supervised the campaign so efficiently that the subscriptions were carried to the amazing total of forty-two million dollars, or seventeen million dollars in excess of the city's quota. It was a grand piece of work, recognized as one of the very best made anywhere in the country, and with the credit for success belonging more to Mr. Breed than to any other single man.

Jay O. Ballard, born in Mexico, Oswego county, January 8, 1858, began business life in a store, and then became a traveling salesman for a time. He located in Malone in 1887, engaging with C. C. Whittelsey in the manufacture of clothing, but not successfully. In 1891, however, he resumed the business in partnership with his brother-in-law, Colonel William C. Skinner, and has built up a very prosperous establishment, erected a well equipped factory for the manufacture of cloths, employs more than a hundred hands, and turns out large quantities of garments of various kinds which find a ready sale. Mr. Ballard is actively and efficiently interested in most matters that touch the town and county's interests, and is liberal both with purse and time in their support. Though without military education or experience, he was drafted at one time because of his sound business judgment and executive ability to be the commandant of Company K, N. G. S. N. Y., and made an excellent record. He is president of the Alice Hyde Hospital Association, and gives to the affairs of the institution much time and thoughtful effort.

Lorenzo Coburn, born in Constable December 27, 1812, became principal of Franklin Academy, after which he had many wanderings and various occupations. He was a miller and merchant in a small way at Constable, and then engaged in market gardening — having been the first to supply residents of the village of Malone in a systematic way with berries and early vegetables. In his later years he lived in Kansas, New Jersey and South Dakota, and always the place of his latest location was the best and most promising in the world. For many years he sent letters regularly to the Palladium, and, regardless of the text, he invariably made them interesting. He died at Vermillion,. S. D., July 28, 1898.

Amos G. Crooks, born in Malone January 9, 1827, gained business experience through employment by large interests in Vermont and in Pennsylvania between 1849 and 1869. He returned to Malone in the latter year, engaging here at first in the commission business, and then as a dealer in stoves and tin. In 1879 he established a wholesale and retail grocery business, the former branch of which soon became so large and successful that the latter was abandoned. Admitting his sons to partnership, the concern took the name and style of A. G. Crooks & Co. It had a large and prosperous business until 1918, when it sold to the Northern New York Grocery Co. Mr. Crooks was of fine judgment, and undoubted probity. He died February 3, 1890.

William P. Cantwell, born at Norton Creek, Canada, in 1829, was graduated from the University of Vermont, studied law in Montreal, and in 1851 was admitted an attorney in that city, where he practiced and did newspaper work for two years, when he removed to Malone. His fine scholarship, studious habits and persistence in fighting his cases with great fertility of resource soon won for him a leading place at the Franklin county bar. He was in particular a master of all of the fine points and technicalities of procedure, and a skillful pleader. There was hardly a case of large importance during the period of his greatest activity in practice that he was not retained on one side or the other, and his zeal, assiduity and resourcefulness always made him a force to be reckoned with. Because of failing eyesight he withdrew from active practice of the law in 1899. Mr. Cantwell was a Democrat, but of the Union stripe during the civil war. In 1858 he was elected school commissioner, and while Albon P. Man was absent in the army acted as district attorney in his stead. He was often the candidate of his party for public office — a number of times for school commissioner, for Congress in 1872 against Mr. Wheeler, and in 1877 for county judge. Though he always polled a good vote, the county was so strongly Republican after 1860 that he was always defeated, and never held office except that of school commissioner. Mr. Cantwell was earnestly interested in all public matters, both general and local, and often was active in participation in them. He was a strong supporter of the public schools, was one of the founders and early trustees of the Northern New York Institution for Deaf-Mutes, and was identified with various business affairs outside of the lines of his profession. During the time that the owner of the Gazette was postmaster, before the civil war, Mr. Cantwell was in charge of the editorship of the paper. He died suddenly at the breakfast table October 31, 1905.

William F. Creed, born in Fort Covington in March, 1847, came to Malone in 1873 to become a clerk and afterward teller in the National Bank of Malone. In 1877 he was appointed cashier of the Farmers National Bank, and so continued for over seven years. During the latter part of this period he became active in Democratic county politics, and in 1884 was a Presidential Elector. A little later he was appointed auditor in the New York custom house under Daniel Magone, and afterward a State bank examiner and then deputy State superintendent of banks. While serving in the latter capacity he was offered and accepted a lucrative position in a bank in Buffalo, but remained there only a short time—removing to New York city, where, with a desk in the brokerage office of Flower & Co., which put him in close touch with big operators, he became a speculator in Wall street at a time when prices were moving rapidly and wildly; and to-day Mr. Creed was rich, and to-morrow almost or quite poor. It was a feverish, wearing life, because it kept a man on edge both day and night, and not improbably the excitement and anxiety of it broke his health. He died while on a visit to Fort Covington November 9, 1903.

James F. Carrigan, born at Windsor, Vt., in 1861, began his business life as a telegraph operator, and soon afterward became spare station Agent, serving at various points on the Central Vermont, and everywhere so acceptably as to command the attention and approval of the management. In 1892 he was assigned to Malone as trainmaster on the 0. & L. division of the Rutland R. R., and has since been promoted to be assistant superintendent of the division. Efficient, attentive to his duties and always courteous, Mr. Carrigan enjoys everybody's good will, does his work thoroughly and well.

David Decatur Darius Dewey, born in Malone October 14, 1826, engaged for ten years in teaching after his graduation from the Albany Normal College in 1849, and was then for a time instructor of teachers' institutes in Wisconsin, where he followed also the business of surveying. Returning East, he located at Moira, and for many years was one of the most influential, useful and respected citizens of the town. He was railroad station agent, merchant, surveyor, and manufacturer of lumber and starch. Mr. Dewey served Moira repeatedly as supervisor, and was school commissioner for six years. He died October 15, 1906.

William S. Douglas of Chateaugay was a farmer on an extensive scale, a manufacturer of potato starch and, with his son, Hiram A., proprietor of a large tannery. He died March 24, 1887, aged 71 years.

Calvin S. Douglass, who had been prominent in Chateaugay as 8 merchant and miller, died in September, 1887, aged 70 years.

William G. Dickinson was born in Bangor, and in 1846 became a partner with his father, Joshua, and brother, Wells S., in the mercantile business. A few years later he established a store himself in Malone, and during the civil war and for a year or two afterward was easily the leading merchant of the place, at least as regards the finer class of dry goods. In 1867 he sold the business, and, forming a partnership with a brother-in-law, engaged in the wholesale grocery business in New York city. The venture not proving altogether successful, it was closed out after three years, and Mr. Dickinson located at Duluth, Minn., where he represented a railway company for a year or two, and then removed to Kansas to take charge of the land interests of the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe R. R. for a number of years, and is credited with having founded more than a hundred towns in the State. From Kansas he went to National City, Calif., to manage a big land development scheme, including the construction of a waterworks and an irrigation system. No more genial, enterprising, popular or straightforward man ever lived in Franklin county. He was county treasurer here from 1861 to 1867. He died at National City July 14, 1891.

Wells S. Dickinson, also a son of Joshua, was born in Bangor August 16, 1828, and at the age of eighteen years became a partner with his father in the mercantile business and also in the manufacture of potato starch. The latter interest soon commanded more of his attention than any other, and at one time he was the owner, in whole or in part, of no less than eight starch mills in Franklin and St. Lawrence counties, besides being the principal dealer in the commodity in this section of the State. He served the town of Bangor as supervisor for a number of terms, was elected to the Assembly in 1859, and to the State Senate in 1871 and again in 1873. Next to William A. Wheeler, whose chief political lieutenant he was, he had more influence and evinced more interest in politics than any other Republican in the county. He was three times a delegate to national conventions, and it was principally through his efforts and enthusiasm that the nomination for Vice-President came to Mr. Wheeler in 1876. Later he was the representative of the Northern Pacific R. R. for a number of years in marketing its lands and building towns in Dakota, and then at Washington to guard against strike legislation in Congress. He was a man of tireless energy, keen, honest and capable in business, and any candidate for a Republican nomination in Franklin county who was fortunate enough to enlist his support was almost always sure of winning. He died in Malone January 19, 1892.

Edwin E. Dickinson, son of Wells S., was born in Bangor August 31, 1852, and after graduating from the University of Vermont joined with his father in the mercantile business, and then studied law at Malone. In 1877 he was appointed private secretary to Vice-President Wheeler, and made his home with him at Washington and Malone for four years. He was chairman of the Franklin county Republican committee in 1880, and made one of the finest campaigns ever known here. Locating in New York city in 1887, he became interested after a year or two in the Boynton Furnace Co., of which his father-in-law was the founder and head. After Mr. Boynton's death, Mr. Dickinson became president and treasurer of the company, and continues with it in that capacity. The concern has a branch in Chicago, and does a large and prosperous business. Mr. Dickinson evinces all of the family characteristics of energy, enterprise, public spirit, spotless character, and engaging personality. No one is a more agreeable and charming companion and friend.

Charles Durkee, born in Burke, January 9, 1827, was at an early age manager of the branch store of E. L. Meigs at Brushton, and shortly afterward was appointed postmaster at Malone, in which place he had become a partner of Rufus R. Stephens in the drug business. Later he engaged in general merchandising in Malone with Sidney W. Gillett. At the outbreak of the civil war he was colonel of a State militia regiment, and endeavored to have his command join the Union army as a body — the only Democrat, I think, in this section of the State who was prominent in the old militia organization who took such a stand, or, indeed, manifested any real anxiety for Union army service, though of course there were hundreds of Democrats not so connected with the militia who sprang to arms as individuals. Failing to rally his regiment of militia for enlistment as a unit, Mr. Durkee joined in the autumn of 1861 in recruiting the 98th regiment of volunteers, which originally was expected to be composed exclusively of Franklin county men, but which, in fact, finally comprised seven companies from this locality and three from Wayne county. Mr. Durkee was commissioned as its lieutenant-colonel, and served with it in that rank and also as its colonel for about a year, when he resigned. Returning to Malone, he engaged again in the mercantile business, but with unfortunate results. During the last three or four years of his life Colonel Durkee was without fixed occupation except that he held various appointments in the State canal and prison departments. He was jovial, fond of companionship, and personally popular and esteemed. He died January 7, 18?9.

Ira A. Darling, born at Morristown, Vt., March 7, 1828, studied medicine, and located for practice at Brushton in 1851—from which date he was a good deal of a "rolling stone" for nearly twenty years, having practiced between times in Chicago, West Virginia, Nicholville, Malone and Dickinson. In 1869 or 1870 he located at West Bangor, and, besides giving attention to the work of his profession, engaged in a number of commercial enterprises, and became active as a local Republican worker. He died October 4. 1891.

George W. Dustin, was born in Dickinson in 1837, was a soldier during the civil war, and was connected afterward with the regular army for several years, in the quartermaster's department in the West. Thereafter he was variously occupied in Franklin county, and in 1887 was elected sheriff. Upon the expiration of his term of office he engaged in the drug business at Brushton. He was prominent as a Mason and Odd Fellow and also in Grand Army circles. Of imposing presence, and a genial companion, he had probably the largest acquaintance of any man in the county. He died July 15, 1897.

George W. Dustin, 2d, was born in Dickinson January 25, 1848, and began life for himself as a farmer, and then as a merchant at Dickinson Center. Clean, manly, genial and accommodating, he early gained the regard and confidence of his townsmen, and was chosen supervisor. Becoming interested in politics, and Dickinson having a strong claim to Republican party recognition, Mr. Dustin won the nomination for county clerk after a hard fight in 1879, and of course was elected and re-elected. In 1886 he entered the employ of A. B. Parmelee & Son,. and while with them was appointed a deputy collector of customs at Malone. In 1892 he removed to Baltimore to take the agency with Capt. H. B. Meiigs of the Aetna Life Ins. Co. for the State of Maryland, but four years later sold his interest in the business to return to Malone and re-engage in the management of the A. B. Parmelee & Son land and timber business. Since the death of Morton S. Parmelee in 1897 Mr. Dustin has been in sole charge of the properties and affairs of the establishment, and has built up in connection with it an important and successful real estate business of his own. In addition, he never fails to evince a strong and useful interest in local matters and enterprises, and has held with credit to himself and benefit to various interests many places of trust in the town. He was for one term a member of the local board of managers of the St. Lawrence Hospital for the Insane at Ogdensburg.

Chandler Ellsworth was born in Fort Covington in 1807, and was a lifelong resident of the town. He owned a farm of six hundred acres, and his buildings were said to be the best farm buildings in the county. Of upright life and possessed of sagacious judgment, he commanded general confidence and accumulated a fine property. He held many town offices, including the supervisorship, and was at times the candidate of the Democratic party for county positions. He died November 22, 1888.

Few men of the civil war period were better known in Malone than Lucius D. Ellsworth, shoemaker, who was also a teacher of singing schools, and himself a vocalist of more than ordinary merit. In church choirs, at concerts by home talent and at social gatherings he was always ready to lift up his voice in glorious song, and his two most popular selections were "Had I But Ten Thousand a Year" and "The Sword of Bunker Hill." Mr. Ellsworth went to the war as a captain in the 9Sth regiment, returned to Malone upon the expiration of his term of service, and in 1867 removed to Illinois, where he died July 4, 1000, aged eighty-two years. The place of his birth and the date of his locating in Malone are unknown to the writer.

Isaac B. Farrar, born at Fairfax, Vt., August 10, 1802, came to Malone in 1839, and removed to Burke a few years later, where he continued to reside until 1884, when he retired from his life-long work as a farmer, and returned to Malone to pass his remaining years. Mr. Farrar was of upright life and ardent convictions — an abolitionist before the war, and so intensely patriotic that he enlisted in the Union army when he had passed the age of sixty years. Careful and prudent, he accumulated property to the amount of perhaps fifteen thousand dollars, and with the exception of legacies of five hundred dollars each to churches in Burke and Bellmont and in Malone, and a few personal remembrances, bequeathed it all as a trust fund to establish and endow the Farrar Home in Malone for Deserving Old Ladies. He died December 16, 1899.

Francis D. Flanders was born in Salisbury, N. H., in 1810, and came to Fort Covington with his parents about 1825 or 1826. While still in his youth he became associated with Samuel Hoard in the publication of the Franklin Republican, and was afterward with him in Ogdensburg in the management and editorship of the St. Lawrence Republican. Returning to Fort Covington, he established the Franklin Gazette in 1837, which he continued to own and edit until 1876, when he sold tie business, though continuing as editor for some years afterward. In his younger years his editorial work was thoughtful and strong, and the paper was recognized as one of the ablest of Democratic country weeklies in the State. In Mr. Flanders's later years, however, he seemed to lose the inclination for extended editorial discussion, and to prefer inditing only pungent, stinging paragraphs, and selecting extracts from other papers in expression of his views, which were always extreme and radical. While published at Fort Covington the Gazette was outspoken in sympathy with the Canadian rebellion or Papineau cause, and was forbidden circulation in the Canadian mails. The office of publication was removed to Malone in 1847, and during the civil war the paper was so pronounced in upholding the constitutionality of secession and so bitter in denunciation of the Lincoln administration that Mr. Flanders was arrested and confined in Fort Lafayette and Fort Warren for about two months, and for nearly two years the Gazette was denied postal privileges in the United States. Mr. Flanders was member of the Assembly in 1844, county clerk 1853-6, postmaster of Malone during the Buchanan administration, and Presidential elector in 1868. He was for many years a member of the board of education of the village school district of Malone, and for a time its president. He died in Malone January 26, 1881.

Joseph R. Flanders, a brother of Francis D., was born at Salisbury, N. H., in 1814. His home was in Fort Covington from about 1825 until 1847, when he removed to Malone. He was admitted to the bar at an early age, and in his spare hours did a good deal of writing for the Gazette, in which his articles usually appeared as editorials. He was scholarly, a finished and forceful writer, and especially delighted in discussion of constitutional principles. He was a delegate to the convention of 1846 to revise the State constitution, was member of Assembly in 1847, and the same year was elected county judge. In the factional strife which divided the Democratic party in 1848 and for a few years thereafter, he and Francis D. disagreed, and Joseph R. established in 1853 and for two years edited the Jeffersonian at Malone to urge his opinions and to represent the uncompromising or hunker wing of Democracy. It goes without saying that the Jeffersonian was exceptionally able and vigorous in its utterances, but it was discontinued when Mr. Flanders removed to New York city in 1885 to re-engage in the practice of the law, of which profession he was a notably strong and reputable exponent. He also was confined at Fort Lafayette and Fort Warren for a few weeks during the civil war. He returned to Malone in 1864 to become counsel for the 0. & L. C. R. R. Co., but soon afterward went to La Crosee, Wis., to engage in editorial work on "Brick" Pomeroy's once famous and widely circulated Democrat. In 1868 he located again in New York city, where he continued in the practice of the law until his health failed in 1886. Mr. Flanders was one of the strongest men intellectually that ever lived in Franklin county, a forceful and captivating speaker, a man of intense and uncompromising convictions, and of high character. He died at Richmond Hill, Long Island, November 5, 1886. There is a legend in the family that during a war, centuries ago, between England and Flanders (now a part of Belgium) soldiers from Salisbury, England, picked up a baby boy on a battle field, and, unable to find his parents or to learn anything about him. took him home with them, and named him Flanders from the fact that he was found there. This boy is said to have been the ancestor of all the Flanders in England and the United States.

Edward Fitch was born in Plattsburgh in 1820, and removed to Malone in his young manhood. He was admitted to the bar about 1850, and practiced with his brother-in-law, Ashbel B. Parmelee, until 1858, when he removed to New York city to become the law partner of ex-Governor Myron H. Clark, with whom he had formed intimate relations while the latter was Governor and Mr. Fitch member of Assembly. Mr. Fitch was elected to the Assembly in 1854 by a combination of Whigs, Knownothings and temperance forces. He died in New York in 1887.

Ashbel P. Fitch, son of Edward, was born in Malone in 1848, and removed with his father to New York in 1858. He was educated in the schools of New York city and in Germany, becoming almost as much a German in habits, language and associations as he was an American, though too earnestly and loyally imbued with American principles ever to have been in sympathy with imperialistic ideas and practices. Upon his return to New York he studied law, and practiced for several years. He was elected to Congress as a Republican by a large majority in 1886, and having become a Democrat on the tariff and excise questions was elected again and again as a Democrat by even larger majorities in the same district. He afterward served for two terms as comptroller of the city of New York, and about 1899 became president of the Trust Company of America, which at the time had the largest capital and surplus of any like institution in the world. Mr. Fitch was one of the most genial of men, possessed large abilities, and had a multitude of friends. He died suddenly May 3, 1904.

Alexander R. Flanagan, born at Waddington July 6, 1823, began his business life in railroad employment, but engaged soon afterward in the hotel business at Rouses Point. In 1857 he purchased the Miller House in Malone, and, until he leased the Ferguson House, continued as its manager. In 1881 he gave over the care of the business to his sons, although always himself recognized as the real head of the house. He was a natural landlord, and no hotel man in the State was better known or more cordially liked by his guests and townsmen. He died July 30^ 1894.

Moses W. Field, son of William, who lived in the Broughton neighborhood in Malone, and then in Bangor, was born at Watertown, and located at Detroit, Mich., at an early age. He accumulated a fortune estimated at half a million dollars, and was elected to Congress in 1872 as a Republican. Later he became a Greenbacker, and had more than any other one man to do with the nomination of Peter Cooper for the Presidency. He died at Detroit March 14, 1889.

J. Dennison Fisk, the time and place of whose birth I do not know, was a conspicuous figure in Franklin county sixty or seventy years ago. He was in trade here at various places, published a newspaper for a short time at Fort Covington, and was the first telegraph operator at Malone. He finally made advantageous business connections in New York .city, and was in the wholesale boot and shoe trade there for years. Fun-loving, companionable and versatile, he had a host of friends in this north country, which he visited frequently. He died at Hartford, Conn., January 4; 1899.

Christopher R. Fay, born in County Antrim, Ireland, February 17, 1838, came to Canada with his parents as a boy, and then to Fort Covington about 1852. As a youth he learned the trade of boot and shoemaker, but never found the work attractive or satisfying. All of his inclinations were to art, and before long he began to do portrait work — obtaining his paints and oils at a carriage paint shop. Even with such crude material he managed occasionally to turn out a piece of work that brought him a bit of money upon which to live. Then he took to the camera, and made the old-style tintypes and daguerreotypes of sixty years ago — apropos of which I recall that he used to insist that T. B. Cushman of Malone, a maker of matches in his final years, and once a local preacher, was undoubtedly the inventor of the tintype. Mr. Fay came to Malone shortly before the outbreak of the civil war, and made pictures with Seymour E. Buttolph. During the war he and Mr. Buttolph were with the army of the Potomac for most of the time, engaged in the same work and in photography. He returned to Malone, which he continued to make his home, except for a short time that he followed his profession in Syracuse. He was in partnership here at various times with Charles Ferris, Captain William H. Barney, George Farmer, M. C. Goodell, and perhaps others. He had a fine artistic sense, and for years his work was the best produced by any gallery in Northern New York. His crayon portraits in particular were of the best, and brought him much outside business as well as alluring offers to attach himself to city establishments. He died July 25, 1916.

Lyman J. Folsom, born in Bombay in 1836, located at Trout River in 1853, and a few years later engaged in merchandising there in company with his father-in-law, Augustus Martin. The business did not prosper, and the firm had to make an assignment during the civil war. Afterward Mr. Folsom opened a store of his own, and did an immense business both in merchandising and in speculating in livestock and farm products; but misfortune again overtook him, and he again assigned. In 1876 he removed to Malone, where he conducted a livery business, and was elected sheriff in 1878 and again in 1884, carrying Malone by nearly a thousand majority, and the county by correspondingly large figures. Owing to his liberality to the poor, and to losses sustained in business, he became involved again financially in 1887, and, as though even then foreseeing the end, declared a year or two previously to friends that he "would prefer to die rather than again go through bankruptcy. In March, 1887, after settling every account that he had with Malone creditors, he drove one day to Trout River, and there committed suicide. No man in the county was better liked.

Henry Furness, born at Bay St. Louis, Miss., February 24, 1850, came to Malone as a child with his mother after the death of his father, and after his school days here clerked in the drug store of Heath & Breed. He then connected himself with the Alabama State Hospital for the Insane for two or three years, and next studied medicine in New York city. His first field of practice was Windsor, Vt., where he remained until 1880, when he located at Malone, where he made a brilliant record in the profession, which interested him absorbingly and in the practice of which he was continually employing then novel, and perhaps startling, expedients, but which because of his marvelous successes became standard. He won and held a standing as a physician second to none in Northern New York. Dr. Furness inherited from a relative in California a comfortable fortune, and in his will, after numerous bequests to relatives and friends, gave $5,000 each to the Alice Hyde Memorial Hospital Association for the support of free beds for the poor, the Farrar Home for Deserving Old Ladies in Malone, the Home for the Friendless in Plattsburgh, and to Franklin Academy for scholarships; $6,000 to St. Mark's Church, Malone, for the relief of the poor; and $2,000 each to the board of education of the village of Malone and to the Wadhams Reading Circle for the purchase of books. These are all trust funds, the income from which is alone to be used for the purposes stated. Dr. Furness died after a long illness July 5, 1913.

Daniel Gorton, born at Pomfret, Vt., April 5, 1790, came to Malone in 1820, where he established a paper mill on the west side of the river at about where Earle's axe factory and then Ladd & Smallman's planing mill used to be. All paper was then made by hand, and it was Mr. Gorton's custom to manufacture a quantity and peddle it himself through the country. When the time came that he was able to employ two girls in the mill he felt that the business had prospered greatly. Mr. Gorton was of superior abilities, and was a born agitator and reformer. He organized here the first temperance society ever formed in Northern New York, and though he was criticized and opposed by the clergy as undertaking to interfere with personal liberty persisted in his work of lecturing in advocacy of teetotalism and prohibition.' He became also an anti-Mason, and after his removal from Malone to Lowell, Mass., which occurred in 1831, he was enlisted in the anti-slavery crusade as an ardent abolitionist, and was the close friend of William Lloyd Garrison and his coadjutor in the cause. Mr. Gorton died at Lowell in 1875.

Theodore Gay, the last survivor but one of the early physicians of Malone, was born in Bridport, Vt., April 1, 1812, the son of a physician, and the cost of his education, which included the course at Middlebury College, was the whole of his patrimony. After graduation at college, he taught school in Western New York and in Georgia to obtain means for pursuing his medical studies. Receiving his degree, he established himself in 1840 at Westville, and finding it a rather barren field moved after a short time to Fort Covington. But there the practice was practically monopolized by Dr. Roswell Bates, so that there was no business for a young doctor, and in 1842 he came to Malone. The physicians of that time filled a niche in the life of a community that can scarcely be comprehended to-day. They not only ministered to the physical ills, but were the intimate friends, the mentors and the monitors of their patients, and so interwove their lives with these that they contributed in a large measure to the moulding of character. Of all the doctors of that period in Malone — and as a class they made the place famous as a center of medical skill — Dr. Gay had the profoundest mind, and the least regard for matters outside of his profession. Gentle as a woman, refined in thought and expression, radiating sunshine in the sick room, he practiced as if it all were a labor of love, with no element of material recompense entering into it. Indeed, he was wont himself to say in entire sincerity that if he could afford it he would never make any charge at all for his services; and the charges that he did make were grotesquely insignificant — a half a dollar per visit within the village limits, except that for a Sunday call the fee was a dollar; from one to two shillings for office advice and treatment; and for a trip into the country as far as Bellmont, in storm of rain or sleet or in zero weather, from a dollar to a dollar and a half. And these fees included medicines, and, more -often than not, were paid in orders on a merchant or in produce — stockings at a dollar a pair, butter at ten cents a pound, veal at two and a half cents a pound, chickens at a shilling apiece, etc. In 1880 Dr. Gay virtually gave up his general practice in order to devote himself almost continuously to the care of Vice-President Wheeler, receiving next to nothing for his services while Mr. Wheeler lived, and only a thousand dollars by the latter's will for six or seven years of attention. The doctor had at first no feeling of resentment, but only grief that he had been so hardly treated. As time passed, however, and friends sympathized with him and expressed indignation, he became as bitter as his kindly nature would permit, and filed a claim against the estate, which was eventually paid at ten thousand dollars. Dr. Gay loved books, both the text books of his profession and the best literature, and he had a wonderfully retentive memory. One afternoon he called at my office, and, picking up a book of quotations, read from it here and there, from Byron, Shakespeare and others, a couplet or fragment of a stanza, continuing from memory to repeat verse after verse until they joined to the next printed quotation. Dr. Gay died January 20, 1899.

William W. Gay, born in Malone in January, 1854, studied law and was admitted to the bar after graduation from Franklin Academy and Middlebury College, but, finding the practice distasteful, turned his attention to journalism about 1881, in which his success has been pronounced. His first connection was with the Springfield (Mass.) Republican, and he has since been on various Chicago and New York city dailies — at times as a special correspondent where assignments were important and service required discretion and judgment, but usually in the home office, where he has filled nearly every responsible position, including general and political editorial work. Of retentive memory, broadly read, indefatigable in application, and strong and brilliant as a writer, Mr. Gay has emphatically "made good." He has been on the New York World for several years past.

Sidney W. Gillett, bora at Essex, Vt., February 21, 1816, came to Franklin county in 1835, and had his home at various times in Chateaugay, Constable, Malone and Montreal. He began clerking for Meigs & Wead in 1837, and two years later opened a store of his own at Trout River Lines, and a few years afterward at Constable Corners. He dealt in practically everything that home customers wanted or that was disposable in the Montreal market or to the contractors who were then building the Beauharnois canal — including lumber, horses, nearly all kinds of other livestock, pot and pearl ashes, and farm produce. After closing out his mercantile business in Constable, he was in Montreal for a year, dealing in lumber, and removed to Malone in 1854, where he was in partnership in merchandising with Colonel Charles Durkee for several years, and afterward continued the store alone, dealt largely in real estate, erected a number of houses, became a hop grower, and for a time ran a tannery in Burke. At the time of locating in Malone he had accumulated a comfortable competence. About 1871 he bought an interest in the Owls Head iron mine, and in the work of developing it sunk a considerable part of his fortune. Mr. Gillett had the trading faculty in a remarkable degree, and used it with a keen shrewdness and sagacious judgment — continuing such operations in a small way years after he had practically retired from active business pursuits. Though not conspicuously active in public affairs, he had a thorough interest in them, and quietly was an earnest supporter of projects for the general welfare. He died June 24, 1902.

Daniel D. Gorham was born in Rutland, Vt., September 8, 1819, and was principal of Franklin Academy for a number of years in the fifties. He then taught at Montpelier, Vt., for eleven years, and afterward at Northampton, Mass., where he died October 26, 1891.

William Gillis was born at Cornwall, Ont., June 22, 1822, and passed his youth at Dundee. He was admitted to the practice of medicine in 1849, and practiced at Fort Covington from that date until his final illness in 1894. Dr. Gillis interested himself in politics at an early date, and became one of the most conspicuous and influential Republicans in the northern part of the county. Positive and rather aggressive, he naturally aroused antagonisms, and was the leader in some of the bitterest town contests for party control that were ever fought in the county, though toward the close of his life all of this feeling died out, and by common consent he was recognized as leader. He filled many town offices with profit to the people and credit to himself, and was also school commissioner for two terms in the second commissioner district. He died February 17, 1894.

George G. Gurley, born in Hopkinton August 19, 1825, located at Chateaugay in 1851, where for several years he was station agent, then deputy collector of customs, and also a dealer in produce and lumber. He was elected sheriff as a Republican in 1863, and after the expiration of his term made his home in Malone, engaging in the tin and stove business, and afterward in dry goods with D. F. Seper and E. R. Hott. He was elected supervisor in 1886, and continued to hold the office until his death. It was said of him that he was always "helping some one every day of his life," and when he died thousands of dollars in worthless notes were found among his papers. As the key to understanding of his big heart and character it needs only to add that these in no way impeached his sagacity, but merely confirmed the quoted estimate of him. In temperament he was remarkably self-poised, and his judgment of the best. He died March 20, 1891.

Samuel Greeno, born in Malone December 31, 1831, was the son of Samuel, who became a merchant here in 1821, and continued in trade with hardly a break, though in many different lines and at different stands, for almost sixty years — making his trips to market in the early times on horseback. The son became a clerk in his boyhood with Meigs & Wead, and from that time to the date in 1866 when he entered upon business for himself was behind the counter for many other merchants. Mr. Greeno and Henry B. Austin established the first distinctively ladies' store the town ever had. The firm was notably enterprising and accommodating, was widely known, and did a large business. Mr. Greeno was public spirited and popular. He died February 13, 1896.

John Ingersoll Gilbert, born at Pittsford, Vt., October 11, 1837, came to Malone in 1861 to become principal of Franklin Academy, in which position he served for six years with great acceptability to the trustees of the institution and with marked satisfaction and incalculable benefit to his pupils. I question if there was ever one of the latter who in mature years could recall any teacher who had helped him as much as Mr. Gilbert, or for whom a greater admiration and a profounder respect abided. Naturally impetuous and quick to wrath, he yet had an infinity of patience with even the dullest student who was trying honestly to do his duty and master his work. He was thorough, and in-vested his work in the class room with an interest and charm that evoked the earnest attention of pupils and went far to develop their minds. Upon the conclusion of his service as principal of the academy, Mr. Gilbert opened a law office in Malone, and continued actively in practice until his death. By temperament and habit of thought he was far better adapted to appeals work than to the trial of cases, for he was inclined to insistence upon reaching the crux of a question as directly as possible, and it irked him to be under compulsion to give attention to the technicalities of procedure. The merits of a case outweighed everything else, and the mere rules of practice seemed non-essentials. Had he had connections which would have made his work mainly a study of principles and of argument before the higher tribunals his abilities must have assured him a rank with the foremost members of the bar. Intensely interested in public policies and problems of government, Mr. Gilbert was as positive a partisan as there was in the State, and for thirty years or more was "on the stump" in every important campaign for the Republican cause. Of profound scholarship, as a speaker he measured his words with marvelous accuracy and with the finest shades of meaning, and, though he never reduced more than two or three addresses to writing, every speech that he made was of a finish and dovetailing that gave occasion for no revision for publication. When indignant over a wrong or a sham every syllable cut like a rapier, and his emphasis of "infamous," "damnable" and other like characterizing words gave each its full and penetrating significance. Mr. Gilbert had neither taste nor aptitude for political management, and all of the recognition that he ever had in a public way came to him solely because of his intellectuality and belief in his moral fibre. He served three terms in the Assembly and one in the Senate, was a delegate at large to the Republican national convention in 1884, was defeated as a candidate for secretary of State in 1891, and was a member of the constitutional convention of 1894. He served also for a number of years as a member of the board of education of the village school district of Malone, and for a long time was president of the board of trustees of the Northern New York Institution for Deaf-Mutes. In the Legislature Mr. Gilbert was a man of mark and force from the first, and always stood squarely and immovably for measures that promised good to the State. He died December 19, 1904.

Hiram Horton, born in Brandon, Vt., in April, 1799, came to Malone with his father, who also was called Hiram, and who located here between 1806 and 1808, and by 1811 had acquired lands which now comprise nearly all of that part of the village lying east of the river and south of Main street, and also a considerable tract on the west side of the river east of Duane street, together with a number of lots in the vicinity of the Rutland Railroad passenger station. The properties included a grist mill and most of the water power privileges within the village limits. These lands were then all forest covered, and thus the subject of this sketch witnessed their transformation from a wilderness, first, into fruitful fields, and then gradually into a thriving village. The properties all came into the possession of Mr. Horton by inheritance and purchase, and in disposing of lots to individuals he was apt not to convey quite all that he believed to be covered by his own titles — not infrequently assuming to dictate years afterward to his grantees that they must not occupy or build upon certain lands which they supposed themselves to own, claiming that the forbidden occupancy would be an encroachment upon himself or upon a highway. He was exacting and autocratic in such matters, and also in regard to his water power rights, concerning which latter he had protracted and bitterly fought procedure in the courts. From an early age Mr. Horton was a principal factor in all town and village concerns. He built carding and fulling mills, and the original McMillan woolen factory, ran a saw mill, and operated the principal flouring mill in the town for over half a century; was among the earliest and most zealous of the agitators for the building of the old Northern Railroad; accepted an election to the Assembly in 1844 solely in order to procure a charter for the proposed company, which predecessors in that body had labored unsuccessfully for years to obtain, and after accomplishing that work wrought untiringly for a long time to enlist capital in the work; indorsed the company's paper when its funds were exhausted to the amount of half a million dollars; and with S. 0. Wead and John L. Russell contracted with the company in 1847 to donate to it ten acres of land upon its agreement to locate its construction and repair shops in Malone — thus bringing to the place an industry which has been of incalculable benefit for sixty years now, and the establishment of which in Malone both Ogdensburg and Rouses Point resented with venomous bitterness. Of marked character, active temperament and inflexible purpose, Mr. Horton was not always easy of approach, nor gentle in manner, but those who knew him best found him generous and kind at heart, and everybody recognized him as public spirited and eminently useful in the community. Besides his service in the Assembly, Mr. Horton was often supervisor, and in 1864 was a Presidential elector, casting his vote for the re-election of Abraham Lincoln. He continued actively in business almost to the time of his death, which occurred August 31. 1872.

John Hutten, born in Glasgow, Scotland, in September, 1809, emigrated to Canada with his parents in 1821. He graduated from the University of Vermont, in which institution he was afterward an instructor, and then located at Malone, and studied law with Asa Haseall. He was one of the engineers of the survey of the old Northern R. R. As a lawyer he was the partner of Joseph H. Jackson, Win. P. Cantwell and Frederic F. Wead. In politics he was first a 'Whig and then a Democrat. He was elected county judge in 1851. His abilities were of a high order, and he commanded wide respect. He died April 1, 1862.

George H. Hutten, brother of John, was born in Scotland, but passed most of his life in Malone. He was a painter by trade. Of the strongest and most radical convictions, he was an early temperance advocate, an extreme abolitionist, and in his later years a political prohibitionist. No man in the community was a more ardent Unionist during the civil war, and he showed his faith and patriotism by enlisting as a volunteer at the age of 54 years. He died suddenly March 24, 1889.

Hiram Harwood, the father of Dr. Watson H., was born in Eden, Vt., but came to Bangor in childhood, and became one of the substantial farmers and respected citizens of the town. He died December 22, 1890.

Daniel N. Huntington, born at Rochester, Vt., in 1815, came to Malone about 1840 to clerk for William King. A few years later he removed to Chateaugay, where he engaged in the mercantile business for himself for a time, and then returned to Malone to become a partner with C. C. Whittelsey in the foundry business. He was also interested in farming, and at one period was about as extensive a buyer and seller of Malone village real estate as any man in the town. He was supervisor of Malone for two years, and at one time was the principal practicing justice of the peace. He was also for many years the leading insurance agent in the county. He died November 18, 1892.

Francis T. Heath, born in Malone, May 18, 1817, entered the Palladium office as an apprentice in 1835, and was deputy county clerk under Uriah D. Meeker, during which latter service he began the study of law. but was compelled by ill health and imperative engagements along other lines to relinquish his intention to become a lawyer. He returned to a connection with the Palladium, became the editor and proprietor of the paper, and continued his connection with it more or less actively until 1856, though in 18-t4 he engaged also in the grocery and drug business. The grocery line was soon discontinued, however, and in 1876 Mr. Heath retired altogether from active business pursuits — living thereafter a life of leisure. In 1853 he consented reluctantly to become the Whig candidate for member of Assembly, and was defeated by only a few votes, while the rest of the ticket was buried under three to four hundred majority. His interest and quiet participation in public affairs always continued eager and useful, but with persistent refusal except in 1853 and upon one occasion that he served as village president to be a candidate for any office. Mr. Heath was a loyal friend and Christian gentleman, of private life that was spotless and pure, and of good sense and' discriminating judgment. He was widely known locally and everywhere respected. He died suddenly of a paralytic shock January 7, 1886.

Albert Hobbs, one of the ablest and most exemplary citizens that the county ever had, was born at Ogdensburg in August, 1820, and came to Constable with his father as a boy. His early purpose was to become a physician, and for a time he studied medicine with Dr. Dana Stevens of Moira: his inclination turning later to the law, he located in Malone, where he remained until his death. He was elected to the Assembly by the Knownothings in 1855, and to the State Senate by the Republicans in 1863, and in 1867 and again in 1871 was chosen county judge. He was also supervisor of Malone for a number of terms, and in every relation of life was uncompromising and outspoken. Of the temperament and conviction of seemliness that would not countenance the slightest effort on his own part to gain office, his record of office holding testified impressively the estimate of his ability and character that was widely held by the people. Judge Hobbs was probably the best judge of law that the county ever had, though not the shrewdest practitioner. He died April 11, 1897.

Edward H. Hobbs, born in Ellenburgh in 1835, fitted for college at Franklin Academy, and was a student at Middlebury, Vt., when the civil war broke out. Giving up his collegiate course, he returned to Malone, and was active in recruiting the 8th regiment, of which he became adjutant. After his military service he studied law, and engaged in practice in Brooklyn and New York, where he gained a high rank in the profession. He took an active part in Kings county politics, and was regarded for years as the most influential Republican in Brooklyn. Major Hobbs was a cousin of Judge Albert Hobbs of Malone. He died August 12, 1907.

Oliver Howard, born in Milton, Vt., April 5, 1821, came to Malone in 1855, contracted for a farm without means to pay any part of the purchase price, and engaged in farming in the eastern part of the town. Hard work, frugal living and shrewd investments gave him more than a modicum of this world's goods, and about 1864 he moved into the village and engaged in merchandising. Mr. Howard was known as a "close" man, and accordingly was more or less misjudged, though when men came to know him they recognized that he was thoroughly honest and just. At the time of his death he was the largest single taxpayer in Malone, and his estate was appraised at $117,000, but was undoubtedly considerably larger. His real estate holdings, especially of business properties and tenements in the village, were considerable. He died June 28, 1888.

William H. Hyde, born at Grand Isle, Vt., July 12, 1826, came to Bangor about 1849 or 1850. He was railroad station agent at North Bangor for a number of years, and when the 60th regiment was organized during the civil war he raised a company for it, and was commissioned captain. Upon his return to Bangor he engaged in the mercantile business, and in 1869 was elected sheriff as a Republican. He was alert, resolute and faithful, and made an excellent official. When the Jewett milk pan was invented he undertook, in partnership with L. R. Towneend, at Malone, the manufacture and sale of the pan, and for years did a large business. The factory was afterward removed to Cortland. Mr. Hyde died at Malone June 16, 1886.

George Hawkins, born in St. Mathias, Que., June 18, 1830, came to Malone in early youth. He assisted in surveying the route for the Northern Railroad, and then engaged in the mercantile business, but with disastrous results, though afterward, notwithstanding he had been legally released from his debts, he paid every dollar of his obligations in full. He was for a number of years associated with Mr. Wheeler and Mr. House in the old State Bank of Malone, and when the National Bank of Malone was organized in 1865 became its cashier, and so remained for about twenty years. He organized the Bank of Chateaugay, and was its working head until he died. Mr. Hawkins was one of the first to suggest the lighting of Malone's streets with gas, and was foremost in organizing the old gas company, in which the stockholders lost almost every dollar that they put into it. He was an enthusiastic worker in the cause of education, and was for many years a member of the board of education. He died very suddenly June 7, 1896.

Allen Hinman was born in Vergennes, Vt., in 1820. After studying medicine he located in Bangor in 1842 for the practice of his profession, and about ten years later removed to Constable, where he remained until about 1865, when he returned to Bangor — ever after making his home there. His health not being rugged, he discontinued his practice, and engaged in the drug business until 1877, from which time he led a retired life. While in Constable he was deputy collector of customs at Trout River, and also served the town as supervisor. In Bangor also he was supervisor and postmaster. He died July 30, 1896, suddenly.

Floyd J. Hadley, born in Westville, July 27, 1852, served his town as supervisor, and in 1885 was elected to the Assembly as a Republican, holding the office for three terms, and winning a creditable standing in that body. At the conclusion of his legislative service he formed a connection with the Fidelity and Casualty Company of New York, which continued until his death, which followed a surgical operation. He died in New York July 20, 1895.

William P. Hawley, born in Malone, February 28, 1856, entered the employ of the paper mill in his early youth as a fireman, and was advanced from grade to grade until he became not only an expert paper maker, but familiar with every detail of the business. In 1877 he removed to California, where he engaged in mining for a time, and then returned to making paper for a company in which the late Roswell P. Flower had a large interest. Afterward he built a number of mills for various companies, and then, organizing a company of his own, built and has since operated a large mill at Oregon City, Oregon — enlarging it and adding other mills from time to time until now he turns out a hundred tons of paper per day. The corporation is styled the Hawley Pulp and Paper Co., and Mr. Hawley is its president. The business has yielded him a fortune. Mr. Hawley is interested largely in a number of flouring mills also, and some conception of the extensiveness of his operations may be formed from the fact that in 1917 his corporations paid in war taxes over a half million dollars!

Joseph H. Jackson, born at New Durham, ST. H., June 11, 1787, studied law in New York city after his graduation from Dartmouth College, and practiced in Albany for a time before locating in Malone about 1833. Mr. Jackson was a man of illustrious abilities, and a remarkably strong lawyer. It used to be said of him that his mind was so disciplined and precise that before putting a pen to paper he had always so thoroughly digested his subject that in reducing his pleadings or communications to the press to writing there never had to be a single erasure or interlineation. The county probably never had an abler lawyer. He was appointed district attorney in 1841, was elected to the Assembly in 1843, and in 1844 was the Whig nominee for canal commissioner. He died January 7, 1856.

William A. Jones, born at Lancaster, Ont., September 25, 1834, removed at an early age with his parents to St. Lawrence county, and when old enough to fend for himself came to Malone, worked his way through Franklin Academy, then clerked in the drug store of Lauriston Amsden, and at length began business on his own account as a grocer. During the civil war he raised a company for the 112d regiment, and became its captain. He was an efficient and brave officer, and was successively promoted to be major and lieutenant-colonel — in which latter rank he was for a time in command of the regiment. Soon after his return to Malone he was appointed to a clerkship in the New York custom house, and was advanced for efficiency to be a deputy collector, and also at one time to be deputy naval officer of the port. His entire service in the custom house covered a period of more than twenty years — during the latter part of which, and afterward, he made his home at Richmond Hill, L. I. Twenty years ago or such a matter he purchased what had once been the Ferguson hop farms in the village of Malone, and thereafter made his home in summer here, and was one of the most thorough, as well as one of the largest, growers in the State. Colonel Jones was companionable and genial, warm in his friendships, public spirited, progressive, and ardent in politics — having been a Republican from his early manhood, and always a party worker. He died December 12, 1909.

William King, born in New Hampshire in 1793, came to Malone in 1831, and established a tannery and boot and shoe shop on Mill street, which he continued successfully for a number of years. In 1837 he engaged in the mercantile business in a long, low frame building that stood on the site of the present King Block, but was moved in 1850 to the west of the block, and turned end to the street. In 1848 he admitted his son, William Wallace, and the next year Howard E., to a partnership, and a little later disposed of the business as a whole to them. He built on Catherine street, in 1844, the first potato starch factory in the county, and at various times was engaged in a considerable number of enterprises, including farming and lumbering in a large way for that time. Ill educated, he was a man of uncommon natural abilities, was notably successful in his undertakings, and for a long time was a force in all of the town's affairs. He was appointed judge of the court of common pleas in 1843. His home was where the Hyde and F. W. Lawrence Co. stores now are, and was burned March 27, 1847 — the date having been cited commonly for half a century as the time of the greatest snow storm ever known in Malone. The snow was four feet deep on the level, all of it having fallen that day, and made it impossible to get the old fire engine to the ground, and practically prevented efficient fighting of the flames in any way. The house was rebuilt, and stood, with alterations, until 1899. Mr. King's judgment commanded universal respect, and his purpose to be helpful in all proper directions was manifested to the end. He was stricken with paralysis in 18G1, and for nearly two years had no use of his limbs, and only a slight command of the organs of speech, but the vigor and clarity of his intellect continued unimpaired. He died August 3, 1863.

William Wallace King, born in Keene, N. H., August 18, 1823, came to Malone with his father in 1831. What his boyhood was no now procurable data tell definitely, but as in his time children were seldom reared in idleness, no matter what the circumstances of their parents, it is a safe assumption that in some way he had to "earn his keep." In 1848 he became a partner with his father in the mercantile business, and continued in that line, together with various outside enterprises, until 1875, when he relinquished his interest in the store for some of the firm's other investments. In 1877 failing health and mind compelled his withdrawal practically from all business activities. As long as he was himself, however, he was one of the shrewdest, most energetic and dominating characters, and one of the most extensive operators, particularly in hops and starch, that Malone ever had, and also one of the most successful. He was enterprising and public spirited to a degree, with an aggressive interest in politics, though never seeking or holding public office except that he was county treasurer from 1852 to 1855, that he was once supervisor, and that he was village president — the first to hold the last named position who distinguished his service by real progressiveness. It was under his administration that Memorial Park was greatly improved; that care was exercised for the first time to keep the streets cleanly; and that the space between the sidewalks and the curbs was made greensward and kept nicely trimmed. Much of the new work of an adorning character was performed at Mr. King's personal expense, his own private employee devoting most of his time to village service. The writer recalls having complimented Mr. King upon the great improvements that he had accomplished, but with inquiry as to what the taxpayers would say when they came to learn the cost. Mr. King's reply is worth repeating: "Don't worry about that, my boy; for the people never kick provided they get their money's worth." He was right, and the amazing feature of the matter to-day is that the entire village tax then was only about five thousand dollars, while now it ranges around forty thousand dollars. When not disturbed by cares, or thwarted in his plans, Mr. King was one of the most genial of men, with a keen liking for fun, and always willing to pay to have it provided. If anxious or annoyed, few could be more abrupt or gruff. He was an excellent citizen, useful in a multitude of ways. For the last few months of his life he was helpless physically, and a mental wreck. He died September 15, 1881.

Howard E. King, born in Putney, Vt., August 19, 1825, came to Malone with his parents in 1831, and for forty years from the time of attaining his majority was a conspicuous factor in the business and political life of the town and county. As a boy he worked in the old cotton factory, on a farm, and finally as clerk in his father's store — becoming a partner in the latter in 1819, and subsequently acquiring the business with his brother, William Wallace. This partnership continued until 1875, when the senior member retired, and John W. Fay and William H. King succeeded to an interest in the business. Then Mr. Fay withdrew, and H. E. King & Son continued it until they failed in 1899, with liabilities of $82,000. The King store had been regarded for nearly half a century as one of the strongest in this section of the State, and had enjoyed a remarkably large trade. It never pretended to offer low prices, but in a period when barter and charge accounts were more a feature of merchandizing than now it did extend practically unlimited credit, and never demanded settlements while a customer continued willing to be charged interest on balances. The failure was caused in large part by losses on hops, which the firm handled extensively. From the time of the failure to his death Mr. King, broken in health and spirit, lived quietly, and without occupation other than that of collector of village school taxes. He had been supervisor of Malone for nine years, was for a long time president of the Peoples National Bank, and was always interested in politics and public matters. He was courteous, considerate and respected. He died July 9, 1909.

In connection with these King personal sketches it would be inexcusable to omit mention of King's Hall — a room to which attach more stirring and touching memories than any other in Malone except the churches. Its seating capacity was perhaps four hundred, and its furnishings only a small, low platform or stage, and benches for seats. Yet it was for nearly twenty years from 1850 the only assembly room in the town other than the churches and the court room; and in it were given such lectures, concerts and minstrel entertainments as the place enjoyed, and there also most public and political meetings used to be held. Down its stairs and pouring into the street, to the strains of martial music, came the Wide Awakes in uniform and with torches and banners in the memorable Lincoln campaign of 1860, and there, too, a few months later we had one of our first war meetings, when hearts beat riotously and blood ran hot because Sumter had been fired upon. Our first company of volunteers was recruited there in April of 1861. It was in this hall also that many war meetings were held during the ensuing four years, and that much of the Republican party's local history was enacted and written, it having been for twenty years the place for holding caucuses and conventions. Here, i too, in the time when there was neither telegraph nor telephone reaching to most of the outlying towns, the Republicans were accustomed to gather on election night to receive the returns — men driving for long distances through mud and storm to bring tidings from their respective districts, and telegraphic reports coming in to tell of results in the State at large. All hearts overflowed with gladness if the news were good, and from time to time until early morning hours jocular or impassioned short talks were made by Wheeler, Dickinson, Parmelee, Seaver, Hobbs, Kilburn, Brennan, Gilbert and others. If its walls could but speak what a story they might tell! For all this Republican usage never was more than a nominal charge made, and often there was no bill at all — not even for the gas that was burned. In 1884 the hall was converted into a lodge room for the Odd Fellows, and is now the meeting room for the Grange.

Abraham Klohs, born in Exeter, Penn., in 1819, was educated as a mechanical and civil engineer, and his first railroad work was on the Beading in the latter capacity. Next he was similarly employed in Ireland for two years, and in 1849 joined the force which was then building the old Northern Railroad (now the 0. & L. C. division of the Rutland), and with the exception of two periods aggregating six or seven years remained with the line until his death. After construction was finished his service was altogether as master mechanic or superintendent, with location at first at Rouses Point, but after 1858 at Malone. Painstaking to give an efficient and safe service, Mr. Klohs was otherwise much of the Vanderbilt mould — resentful of outside inquiry concerning accidents, delays or methods of management, and disposed to hold that "the public be damned"; and when annoyed quite apt to make that view manifest in a direct, emphatic and brusque manner. Otherwise he was genial and sociable, and was a favorite with the men under him and with people generally. Of inventive mind, he perfected many devices which became invaluable in railroad operation, and which he gave freely to the company. Had he chosen to patent these, they would undoubtedly have made him independently rich. Mr. Klohs died at Malone April 14, 1885.

Nathan Knapp, born in Bangor, February 21, 1824, came to Malone in 1841, and after having clerked for a time for his uncle, Wells Knapp, entered upon the mercantile business on his own account — continuing in trade successfully to the day of his death. Of quick perception, sound judgment, and a ready and diligent application, Mr. Knapp quickly established himself in the front rank of Malone's business men, with a high character for integrity, and in enjoyment of the entire confidence of the community. In 1866 he succeeded Edwin L. Meigs for a few months as president of the Farmers National Bank. He died February 23, 1867.

Henry G. Kilburn, born in Poultney, Vt., August 21, 1824, became a bloomer in iron works in Essex county, but, having ambition for a higher and broader life, studied law, and after admission to the bar located in 1859 at Fort Covington. The place offered few opportunities, and the struggle for a few years was trying and strenuous. In 1870 Mr. Kilburn came to Malone. where his sturdy common sense, clear perception of the essentials in a case, and his vigorous prosecution of suits soon brought him clients in considerable numbers and gained him a good standing at the bar. It was enjoyable to listen to his quaint expressions and unique and striking illustrations in argument before a jury, which usually won the good nature and sympathy of the men with whom the interests of his clients rested, while at the same time he drove home his points of law and equity in a homely but effectual way. In 1883 he was elected district attorney, and was twice re-elected. Politically he was a radical of the radicals — an ardent anti-slavery man before the civil war, and afterward a Republican without wavering or shadow of turning — incapable even of comprehending how any one could take any course except to support unquestioningly the regularly made nominations of his party. During his final years he was a sufferer from an excruciatingly painful ailment, and was compelled by it to retire from active practice. He died January 80, 1899.

Frederick D. Kilburn, born in Clinton county, July 25, 1850, came to Fort Covington with his parents in 1859. It is told of one of his long-ago ancestors that, having lost an axe through the ice on a pond, he unhesitatingly followed it into the water, and recovered it. True or false, the reported incident is characteristic of the subject of this sketch — for what he wanted he always went after with determination, and usually found. Thrown upon his own resources at an early age, he worked for his education, and in early manhood was an admitted and well equipped attorney at law, building up an excellent business. But in 1885 he abandoned practice to become the vice-president and active manager of the then newly organized Peoples National Bank of Malone, in which relation he continued for nearly eleven years — gaining invaluable personal experience and making the bank a pronounced success. Both before and during this service Mr. Kilburn was conspicuously active as a Republican worker and leader, and for a number of years was the unquestioned head of the party organization in Franklin county. He was in turn town clerk, clerk of the board of supervisors, and county treasurer for six years. In 1891 in a memorable judicial convention deadlock, the delegates turned spontaneously to Mr. Kilburn as the one man who could resolve all conflicting interests, and unanimously offered him the nomination, equivalent to election, for justice of the supreme court; but having been out of active practice for several years, he doubted his qualifications for the office, and declined the honor. In 1892 he was elected to the State Senate by the district composed of Washington, Warren, Essex, Clinton and Franklin counties — the largest in area and with the greatest population in the State — and, though without previous legislative experience and serving in a body of exceptionally strong men, commanded immediate consideration by his older colleagues, and quick admission into their most intimate councils. In January, 1896, Mr. Kilburn was appointed State superintendent of banks, and was successively reappointed by three Governors — holding the office until 1007, when he resigned with a record for thoroughness and efficiency of administration which was recognized and admired by all of the banking interests of the State, and which brought him from time to time most tempting offers to associate himself with large banks or trust companies. His service as State superintendent of banks compelled his retirement from the active management of his home bank, and after 1907 Mr. Kilbourn had no confining business occupation except during the years when he was the head of the Malone Light and Power Company — in which he sold his stock and interest in 1914. But he was nevertheless far from idle during this period, since his qualifications for leadership and executive management, with the possession of the energy which forces action and co-operation by others, were so generally recognized that whenever any local project of public consequence seemed to call for unusual effort and care, he was drafted by the compelling will of his townsmen to take the lead and carry the purpose to consummation. A ready and forceful speaker, and always in earnest, he was often made the spokesman at public meetings of community sentiment on large questions of a non-partisan character, and was also the most popular and effective Republican campaigner in the county. For a matter of a third of a century Mr. Kilburn was more closely and helpfully identified than any other single citizen with large movements that looked to the betterment of Malone — having been a leader in the reorganization of the waterworks company that made Horse brook its principal source of supply; untiring in aiding to raise the bonus which Dr. Webb required in consideration of bringing the Adirondack and St. Lawrence Railway here; and a principal factor in giving the town an adequate and high-class electric and gas lighting plant. Then he became the head of the home-defense organization for Franklin county, and gave practically all of his time to patriotic work. In a word, Mr. Kilburn was the county's foremost figure in every large local undertaking which appealed to public spirit, and had for its aim advancement of the general welfare and patriotic endeavor; and was the most capable and strongest all-around man in Northern New York. He died December 2, 1917, broken down by the war work that he performed.

Julius M. Keeler, son of Elijah, a pioneer, was born in Malone in 1825, and was one of those infected with the California gold fever of 1849. He was living in Connecticut at the outbreak of the civil war, was commissioned a captain in one of the regiments of that State, and was stationed for service in Oregon. After the close of the war he founded Oregon State University, and became one of its faculty. He located afterward in California, and died there January 28, 1890.

John Clarence Keeler (son of Colonel Carlos C. Keeler) was born in Malone February 17, 1851, and located in New York city in 1871, where he became a clerk in the office of the district attorney. In 18S2 he was appointed by Attorney-General Leslie W. Russell a deputy, and after two years' service in that capacity located at Canton for the practice of his profession. He was an acute and strong lawyer, and had many notable court successes. He was member of Assembly for one of the St. Lawrence county districts in 1892 and 1893. He died in New York city October 18, 1899.

Birney B. Keeler (son of Amos B. and brother of John S.) was born in Malone in 1840, and entered the army as a first lieutenant in the 142d regiment — serving throughout the remainder of the war, and rising to the rank of lieutenant-colonel. In 1865 he enlisted in the regular army, receiving a commission at once, and from that date until his death in 1886 was detailed nearly all of the time to staff duty — serving for many years at San Francisco as judge-advocate on the staff of General McDowell. Colonel Keeler was a natural soldier, loved the profession, and was thoroughly competent in it. He had a brilliant mind and a fine presence, and was always an engaging companion.

James W. Kimball, born at Lawrence, N. Y., June 30, 1825, located at Fort Covington in 1845, and for seven years was a merchant's clerk. In 1852 he began a mercantile business for himself, with a capital of $300, and closed out in 1863. Acquisitive, energetic, enterprising and notably shrewd, he was successful to a degree, and was understood to have accumulated $40,000 clear in these eleven years. He was active in Republican politics locally, was supervisor for five years during the civil war, and served in the Assembly in 1865, 1866 and 1867. There were whisperings at the time that he had made some of his votes in the Legislature profitable to himself; but I recall having been present at a conversation wherein he reviewed all of the charges and suspicions of that sort, and with a clearness and vigor that was convincing to me denied and refuted every accusation ever made against him. He was in no sense an orator or public speaker, but a stronger and more persuasive talker I have seldom heard. He died March 7, 1872.

John Kelley, born in Franklin, Franklin county, Vt., January 20, 1841, came to Bellmont with his parents in 1842, and has ever since resided in Bellmont or Malone. There were eight children in the family, and the father not having been strong, the duty of caring for the mother and for the sisters and younger brothers devolved largely upon the subject of this sketch from the time that he was old enough to work, which in those days was at an early age. There was little time for attending school, and except for a few winter weeks in district schools Mr. Kelley had no educational opportunities until at the age of nineteen he succeeded in arranging with 0. T. Hosford to work for his board and attend Franklin Academy. Students in this day who sometimes feel that their struggle is a hard one may find encouragement in learning what that schooling cost Mr. Kelley. He had to take care of fifteen head of cattle, saw the daily supply of wood, draw hay or fill ice houses every Saturday, and give one cord of wood from his father's farm (which he chopped himself out of school hours) for each week's board and lodging — hauling the wood with a yoke of oxen. But it was more an actual, intense hunger for knowledge and self-improvement, prompting to home study and omnivorous reading, that gave to Mr. Kelley his remarkable fund of general information and equipped him to put his thoughts and convictions on paper in a strikingly readable and persuasive way. Mr. Kelley continued to make Bellmont his home until 1880, always taking interest and bearing his part in the duties .of good citizenship. He held there the offices of constable, commissioner of highways, justice of the peace and supervisor, and was also a justice of sessions when the county court of sessions used to have its so-called "side judges." Upon his removal to Malone Mr. Kelley bought and engaged in operating a planing mill and sash and trim factory, in which business he still continues. In the years when political ardor moves men more than it is apt to do in age Mr. Kelley was one of the most active, enthusiastic and influential Democrats in the county, but always from conviction, and never as a self-seeker. His leadership gave him close relations with Governors Hill, Flower and Dix, and with Senator Murphy, so that more than once he was able through them to promote local enterprises of importance to Malone and Franklin county. Mr. Kelley has always taken a broad and intelligent interest in local public affairs, and especially in the public schools. For forty years he was a school trustee, and at present is president of the Malone village board of education.

John P. Kellas, born at Mooere Forks, N. Y., September 13, 1854, came to Malone to study law in IS??. Following his admission to the bar, he entered upon the practice, and quickly gained an assured standing in the profession. A diligent student, with a keen appreciation of the salient questions in a case, with a painstaking attention to the niceties and twists of procedure, and with a natural aggressiveness and persistence that contested every point to the uttermost, Mr. Kellas became one of the most formidable trial lawyers at the Franklin county bar. About 1900 he became the attorney locally for William G. Rockefeller, and in time was associated with him in deals in timber lands which yielded a nice return. Mr. Kellas engaged also in a number of other outside enterprises which proved profitable, and evinced in all of them a shrewdness and sagacity of business judgment that have made him well to do. Among these investments are an electric lighting plant at Champlain. and practically the sole ownership of a railroad which runs from Wilmington, Vt., to the Hoosac Tunnel, Mass. Though Mr. Kellas continues in the practice of the law, his other interests have become so numerous and important as to occupy more of his attention, and his appearance in court in recent years has been confined largely to important cases.

Anslem Lincoln, born at Cohasset, Mass., January 19, 179V, was a soldier in the war of 1812, and came to Malone in 1815, having been twelve days in making the journey from Boston. There were then only twenty houses on the east side of the river, and but a slightly larger number on the west side. Mr. Lincoln began business here as a shoemaker, and then as a tanner. He mingled but little in public affairs, but was an exemplary citizen. He died October 20, 1888.

Darius Watts Lawrence, born in Moira, February 19, 1822, was in business at an early age, and, forming a partnership a few years later with his cousin, Clark «T., continued merchandising until 1867, when, yielding to persistent urging, he came to Malone to become cashier of the Farmers National Bank, of which he became president a few years later, and so remained until the day of his death, taking an active part in the management. The firm of D. W. & C. J. Lawrence was one of the strongest in the county, both in its individual composition and in the extent of its operations and of its resources. Each of the members had superior judgment, great energy and enterprise, and commanded the entire trust and confidence of the community. Their success was notable, each having accumulated a hundred thousand dollars or more before closing their Moira business. Mr. Lawrence filled a conspicuous part in the business life of Malone, his bank connection alone having been important, and other undertakings having also engaged his attention. He was one of the builders of the Ferguson House and Lawrence Hall in 1869, became a director of the Ogdensburg and Lake Champlain Railroad Co., was long a member of the village board of education, was heavily interested and actively occupied in the Lawrence-Webster woolen mills, and for thirty years or more was a trustee of the Northern New York Institution for Deaf-Mutes and its treasurer. Having the prestige of the Lawrence name, which meant much fifty or sixty years ago, particularly in the western part of the county, Mr. Lawrence was elected to the Assembly in 1851 and 1852 as a Democrat, and, for some reason unknown to the writer, was then known politically as "the Young Buffalo." Thereafter for a period of more than thirty years he was regarded as the most popular Democrat in the county, and was often drafted by his party as its candidate for one or another office — particularly for member of Assembly or county treasurer — whenever it was sought to make an especially telling canvass, or to conduct a determined drive against a Republican who was thought to be weak with the voters. Though himself usually passive in such contests, and the county being strongly Republican, he nevertheless invariably made an excellent showing, and ran well ahead of his ticket. Personally Mr. Lawrence was one of the most estimable of. men in the county, sagacious in judgment, public spirited, and upright in every walk of life. With grievous afflictions and sorrows thrust upon him, he yet seemed always genial, and radiated sunshine. He died suddenly November 26, 1913.

Clark J. Lawrence, born in Moira in 1832, began business life in that village at an early age in partnership with his cousin, Darius W. Lawrence. The firm's operations, varied and extensive, included general merchandising, the manufacture of starch and lumber, and dealing in farm produce. Careful, shrewd and competent, they were prospered from the first, and when they closed out active undertakings in Moira in 1867, to associate themselves with the management of the Farmers' National Bank of Malone, each had accumulated a handsome property. For thirty years Mr. Lawrence was vice-president of the bank, and was not only assiduous in his application to the management, but brought to the conduct of its affairs an acumen and soundness of judgment of a high order, which counted heavily for the institution's success and prosperity. In 1897 he retired from active sharing in administration of the bank, though remaining a director and always interested and an advisor in it until his death. Apart from the bank connection, he was interested in no general business undertaking after his removal from Moira with the exception of a partnership of three years with Clinton Stevens in the furniture trade. Twenty years ago or such a matter there began to be suggestion and tentative agitation for the establishment of a general hospital in Malone, and in 1904 an incorporation was effected to further the project. Nothing was really accomplished, however, until in 1910 Mrs. Angie Hardy Leighton bequeathed ten thousand dollars and Baker Stevens gave a five thousand dollar farm to the association, and thereafter the movement made no progress until in 1911 Mr. Lawrence added twenty-five thousand dollars to the fund — the gift carrying no conditions except that an equal amount be raised by general subscription and that the institution be named the Alice Hyde Memorial Hospital, in memory of the donor's deceased niece — a woman of lovable traits and character, who had been as a daughter to Mr. Lawrence from her childhood. Both conditions were fully met, with the result that in 1913 the institution was opened, completely equipped, and has since been doing continuously a beneficent work. By his will Mr. Lawrence, having no children, gave his entire estate of fifty-odd thousand dollars, less four bequests of a thousand dollars each to relatives, to further endow the hospital — the will reciting that Mrs. Lawrence, possessing ample means of her own, had requested that nothing be devised to her. Comment upon the splendid benefaction would be superfluous. Mr. Lawrence personally was not of easy approach upon terms of intimacy, notwithstanding he was at heart companionable and enjoyed keenly the pleasure of association with those for whom he cared. One had to know him particularly well in order really to know him at all, and to appreciate his fine qualities of mind and character. He died after a brief illness September 1, 1917.

Timothy B. Ladd, born in Meredith, N. H., in April, 1820, came to northern New York about 1850, and was yard master of the old Northern Railroad at Ogdensburg until 1855, when he became roadmaster, with headquarters at Malone, and so served for ten years. He then bought the Union House at Chateaugay, and was its landlord until he died, January 7, 1887.

Eugene H. Ladd, born in Meredith, N. H., in 1835, came to Malone to become a clerk in the offices of the Northern Railroad about 1856, and eventually became general ticket agent. In 1868 he bought the W. W. & H. E. King interest in the Horton grist mill and saw mill, and in time acquired sole ownership of the properties. William E. Smallman bought into the concern later, when its activities broadened, and grew to include large lumbering operations in Duane and Clinton Mills, hop growing on an extensive scale in Malone and Canada, and dealing in fine driving horses. Mr. Ladd was originally a Republican in politics, but became a Democrat, and, naturally with his temperament, which often suggested the finding of a positive pleasure in antagonizing and defying any majority sentiment, was both more active and more bitterly partisan in the latter relation than he had ever been in the former. But he was never much of a party worker or manager, his business interests generally engrossing his attention. In this field he was remarkably capable, systematic, self-poised and successful. Not readily admitting men to friendship, he was steadfast and warm to those to whom he did give confidence and regard. He served one term as president of the village, and in affairs which enlisted his interest he always showed zeal and efficiency. He was especially active and useful in the campaign to raise the fund required to bring to Malone the Adirondack and St. Lawrence Railway. He died March 3, 1908.

Uriah D. Meeker, born in Washington county April 24, 1804, removed with his parents to Massena, and in 1829 located at Port Covington, where he established himself as a merchant for one year, after which he was in trade at Bangor for a short time. Returning to Fort Covington in 1831, he again opened a store there. For nine years from 1834 he was county clerk, and then deputy county clerk under his successor in office. In 1853 he became a merchant in Malone, continuing in business until 1862, when he was appointed assessor of internal revenue taxes, holding the office until his death. Mr. Meeker was of spotless integrity and irreproachable character; of exceptional abilities; kindly and companionable; and especially interested in the young, for whom he always had a pleasant greeting, and was ready as occasion suggested with words of encouragement and counsel. He was stricken with apoplexy April 5, 1868, and died instantly.

Albon Platt Man was born in Westville in 1810, and located in New York city in 1831, where he gained eminence in the law, and acquired a competence. He died March 30, 1891.

Hamlet B. Mears, for half & century or more a large figure in Fort Covington affairs, was born at Hawkesbury, Ont., and died at the former place in 1887.

Andrew M. Millar, born in Scotland August 13, 1819, the son of Rev. James Millar, came to the United States with his parents, and, himself entering the ministry in 1842, became one of the best known clergymen in Northern New York, and had perhaps the longest service in it of any who ever officiated in the county. He preached his first sermon in Chateaugay, when the Presbyterian church there and its membership in Burke were one, and continued so to serve until Burke was set off as a parish. He was thereafter pastor of the latter society until 1896— or for forty-four years without a break except for one year when he was ill and except also for the time that he was an army chaplain during the civil war. From 1868 he was pastor also of a church which he organized at Bellmont Center, and at one period served Constable also for seven years, the places being distant a number of miles from each other. Nevertheless Mr. Millar never permitted weather or any preventable cause to keep him from filling his appointments. He officiated at more than two thousand funerals, and preached six thousand sermons. No work was too arduous for him, and his life was of large usefulness, fine in its influence, and noble in all its aspects. From 1866 he made his home in Malone, where he died August 22, 1896.

Edwin L. Meigs, son of Guy, was born in 1822 — probably in Constable, as his father (born in St. Albans, Vt., in 1703) is known to have been a resident there and to have been established in business in Westville in 182-4. Mr. Meigs became a merchant in Malone in 1845, and so continued, in various partnerships, for about eighteen years. He had also branch stores from time to time in Brushton, Constable and Trout River. Upon the incorporation of the Farmers National Bank of Malone in 1864 he was chosen president, and, his health having been somewhat impaired, the strain incident to the work of organizing and starting the institution's business taxed his strength so severely that after a few months he went to New York for medical advice and treatment, and died there. No shrewder, more capable business man, nor any one who was quicker and brighter mentally, ever lived in Malone. He was very popular personally, and had tremendous energy and a keen perception of opportunities. His operations were varied and numerous, and his success uniform. He had five children, all of whom died without issue, so that his direct line is extinct. He died May 14, 1865.

Albon P. Man, bom in Westville in June, 1826, studied law in New York city after graduation at Union College, and about 1850 located in Malone for practice of the profession. He was also an expert surveyor. In 1859 he was elected district attorney, but before the completion of his term of office joined in raising the 98th regiment of volunteers in the civil war, and became major of the command. Mr. Man's temperament was not martial, however, and the service became so irksome to him that after about a year in the field he resigned. He located in New York city soon after his return from the front, intending to practice law there, but in a short time was intrusted with the management of the large Lorillard estate and business, and for a considerable period gave practically all of his attention to the handling of that trust. Later he took up the study of electricity, and became an authority in the science. Forming a partnership with Frederick Sawyer, a practical worker in electrical problems and devices — Mr. Man supplying the suggestions and theories and Mr. Sawyer developing them — they accomplished between them results of value and importance. Among these was the invention and perfection of an incandescent lamp very like to that now in so general use; there was a long and hard contest in the courts for determination of whether they or Edison were first with the invention and patent. Though losing the legal battle, Mr. Man nevertheless insisted that the Sawyer-Man lamp antedated the Edison. Major Man was one of the most entertaining and informing conversationalists that it was ever my good fortune to know, and was in every way a high-minded and useful citizen. He died in Brooklyn February 18, 1905. .

VanBuren Miller, born in Harrietstown in 1827, became more familiar with the town's affairs, land titles and interests, and more useful in promoting and guarding them than any other resident. He was for many years supervisor. He died June 17, 1892.

Michael S. Mallon was born in Malone July 5, 1835. In his youth and young manhood he was clerk in a number of stores, and about 1863 formed a partnership with Charles L. Hubbard, which continued until a competence had been gained, and advancing years brought inclination to retire from business activities in 189C. Thereafter Mr. Mallon served many of his former customers and friends as executor or administrator, . always managing their affairs prudently, faithfully and successfully. He was long an active and valued member of the board of education, and by wise counsel continued until his death useful both in a public way and to his friends and neighbors. He died November 20, 1915.

George Barry Mallon, son of Michael S., was born in Malone May 20, 1865, and at once after graduation at Amherst College in 1887 entered upon journalistic work on the New York Sun—advancing in the importance of his assignments from time to time until he became city editor. His work was of a high grade, and his personality won for him the entire trust of the management and the warm regard of everybody who knew him. He became one of the most charming and most sought after-dinner speakers in New York. In 1916 he withdrew from the Sun to take the management and editorship of the Butterick publications at a handsome salary, but resigned the position in 1917, applying himself for several months to war work. Recently he has become a member of the staff of the Bankers Trust Company in New York city, holding a responsible and important position in the institution.

Almerin W. Merrick, born in Fort Covington in 1836, was a farmer there all of his life except six years, from 1873 to 1879, when he was county clerk. He gained the nomination by his own almost unaided work, the Republican leaders having generally preferred another candidate. It was only by the hardest kind of work that he was defeated for nomination for a third term, and in 1885 he again failed by but a narrow margin of being nominated. He died from the effects of an injury October 3, 1891.

John H. Moffitt was born in Chazy January 8, 1843. He enlisted in the 16th regiment at the outbreak of the civil war, and was one of the best soldiers in that fine command. From 1866 to 1872 he was deputy collector of customs at Rouses Point, and then until 1877 was engaged in the manufacture of charcoal at Moffitsville. In 1877 he located at Chateaugay Lake as superintendent at that point for the Chateaugay Ore and Iron Co., and his activity in politics and personal popularity soon made him one of the foremost Republicans in the county. He was elected to Congress in 1886 and again in 1888. In 1891 he became manager of the street railways in Syracuse, and so continued for eight and a half years, after which he was for two years in charge of the city's water works. In 1902 he was elected cashier of the Plattsburgh National Bank, and in 1904 its president, which position he still holds. Mr. Moffitt is always earnest and energetic, has sound business judgment and fine executive capacity, and is of notably genial and likable personality.

Daniel P. Morse, a grandson of Ashbel Parmelee, D. D., was born in Malone April 6, 1852, and after quitting school was associated with his father for a time in the boot and shoe business in Malone. In 1872 he obtained a position with a wholesale boot and shoe house in New York city, and after a dozen years of experience and study of the business branched out on his own account. His success has been pronounced, and no man now stands higher in the trade. Mr. Morse soon convinced himself that the business was conducted generally on mistaken and illogical lines, which he proceeded to reform so far at least as his own establishment was concerned. The course that he pursued other dealers quickly recognized as wise, and all followed his methods, so that the trade is now upon wholly different lines from those that formerly obtained. Mr. Morse's business is of very large proportions, and his house is known as one of the most reliable and progressive in the United States.

Gordon H. Main, born at Franklin Center, Quebec, September 29, 1852, came to Burke as a child with his parents, and after attendance at Franklin Academy and admission to the bar located in Chateaugay for practice, but subsequently removed to Malone. Naturally aggressive and combative, with decidedly set convictions, which he was accustomed to express vigorously, and with a faculty for getting at the root of things, Mr. Main quickly made himself a force at the bar. He was as pronounced and positive politically as in other matters, and was often heard on the stump in advocacy of Republican candidates and policies. He was elected district attorney in 1898, and held the office for nine years. He died at the Ogdensburg City Hospital November 25, 1911.

N. Monroe Marshall was born in Schuyler Falls, N. Y., June 13, 1854, and his home conditions were such that he was compelled to fend for himself from the age of fourteen years, from which time he worked for six years at the machinists' trade. In 1874 he became telegraph operator and station agent for the Chateaugay R. R., and a little later came to Chateaugay Lake to be bookkeeper for the Chateaugay Ore and Iron Co. While so employed he lost his right arm at the shoulder by the accidental discharge of his gun, but in six weeks after his return to his desk was able to write as legible and handsome a hand as any employer would care to have appear on his books. He served Bellmont as supervisor in 1885, and the same year, after a memorable canvass, was nominated as a Republican for county clerk. He served six years in the office, and then was with the Fidelity and Casualty Company until 1895 as adjuster of claims — visiting nearly every State in the Union. In 1895 he became vice-president and manager of the Farmers National Bank of Malone, and in 1896 transferred his services to the People's National Bank of Malone, having been elected vice-president of that institution upon the appointment of Frederick D. Kilburn to be State superintendent of banks. In 1899 he was elected president, and still continues in the same capacity with a fine record of successful management— deposits having increased in the period by nearly $400,000, and the gain in surplus and undivided profits having been $316,500. Mr. Marshall was elected to the State Senate as a Republican by the Franklin-St. Lawrence district in 1914, and re-elected in 1916. His committee assignments in that body have been of the first order for a new member, and his standing with his colleagues and on the record is of the best. His sound business judgment, his certainty in aligning himself always on the right side on both party and purely public measures, his camaraderie, his readiness of wit, and his genius for invariably having a corking good story peculiarly apropos to any situation have made him one of the most popular and influential of the Senators.

Martin Eugene McClary, born in Albany, Vt., February 15, 1854, came to Malone at once following his graduation from Dartmouth College in 1876 to become principal of Franklin Academy — which position he continued to hold with great acceptability to the board of education and with a brilliant record for high-class work for ten years. A thorough scholar, with a faculty for interesting students and for imparting instruction, enthusiastic and untiring in his work, young enough to understand intuitively and intimately the tendencies and practices of youth and human enough to deal with them in a tactful way, Mr. McClary was one of the most successful heads that the academy ever had, and attached his pupils strongly in bonds of admiration and affection. During the closing years of his school service he studied law, and was admitted to the bar concurrently with the close of his term of teaching — at once opening an office in Malone, and continuing in practice here until his death. He held the office of school commissioner for six years from 1891, and, with his interest in educational matters and his peculiar fitness for the place, was as a matter of course an efficient official. He was chairman of the Republican county committee for two or three years, and in 1908 was an unsuccessful candidate for the Republican nomination for Senator, and in 1899 for the Assembly — unsuccessful perhaps because he would not employ the methods of solicitation and persuasion which usually win in such contests. In 1892 Mr. McClary had been one of the hardest workers in the movement to secure the building of the Adirondack and St. Lawrence Railway, and displayed such ability in the negotiations with Dr. Webb, and in the preparation of agreements with him, that when the road had been built he was employed to look after the local legal business of the company in settling deals for rights of way and in preparing and trying cases in court. Much of his time for more than twenty years was given to this work. Mr. McClary was of unsullied character, held positive convictions on all questions that interested him, was a pleasant and persuasive speaker, and never failed to give earnest and generous support according to his means and to the extent of his abilities to all meritorious local projects. He was a contributory organizer and stockholder in a number of local enterprises which were instituted more with the thought that they would benefit Malone than that they would put money in the pockets of their backers. He was for several years president of the board of trustees of the State tuberculosis hospital at Ray Brook, a trustee of the Farrar Home for Deserving Old Ladies, president of the village board of education, and a zealous and working director of the Alice Hyde Memorial Hospital Association. He died October 13, 1915.

Robert M. Moore, born at Morristown, Ont., July 3, 1867, removed with his parents in his youth to Jefferson county. His first experience in practical life was at a blacksmith's forge, and it was perhaps his first exhibition of the natural cleverness and acumen that has since so often been evidenced when, after two years, he quit the drudgery and hard work of that occupation upon the conviction that a much better living could be made more easily, and began the study of law—gaining admission to the bar in 1890. Mr. Moore located in Malone in 1889, and after ten years of practice and of conspicuous participation in politics here removed to New York city in 1900. His strong points, additional to unfailing good nature, are a remarkably retentive memory, so that any principle of law or court decision once read continues always at instant command, and a persistence in court in pursuing with resolute refusal to be diverted from it the one line of attack or defense mapped out by him in advance. Though not without his triumphs in civil actions, Mr. Moore's reputation rests largely upon his conduct of criminal cases. Besides the many successes won by him in Malone, he has been connected with a number of important murder trials in New York city — notably the Dr. Kennedy and the Patrick trials — which he conducted with ability and marked distinction. For a number of years both while practicing in Malone and after his removal to New York, he had practically a monopoly of the rich business incident to representing Chinamen who had been apprehended under the Chinese exclusion act, and realized tens, if not hundreds, of thousands of dollars from it. While spending most of his time in New York, Mr. Moore continues to identify himself with Malone through a law partnership with Andrew B. Cooney.

Daniel Harwood Martin, son of the late William Martin and stepson of Dr. Watson H. Harwood, was born at Chasm Falls May 5, 1871, and was educated at Franklin Academy, Potsdam Normal School, Oberlin College and Drew Theological Seminary. But years before he attended the latter institution, and even before he attained his majority, he had engaged in preaching, and had served as pastor of the Wesleyan Methodist Church of Vermontville, in the church at Paul Smiths, and elsewhere, with a zeal and ability foreshadowing the larger and better work that he has since achieved. After having filled a number of assignments in New York, Maryland and Virginia he was called to a church in Washington, D. C., where he is still located, and preaching with an ability not only pleasing to his parishioners, but commanding attention elsewhere. St. John's College of Annapolis, Md., conferred upon him the degree of Doctor of Divinity in 1909. Dr. Martin is a frequent contributor of articles on social welfare and patriotic questions to the Washington papers, and is an indefatigable worker.

Maurice D. O'Connell, born in Constable April 23, 1839, was a student at Franklin Academy with William D. Brennan, Edward IT. Hobbs, Birney B. Keeler, Eugene Wilbur, Patrick G. Duffy and other well known men of that generation, and then taught school in Clinton, Franklin and St. Lawrence counties. During the civil war he was a chief of division in the office of the comptroller of the currency at Washington, D. C., where he studied law, and was admitted as an attorney in 1866. In 1869 he located at Fort Dodge, Iowa, and practiced law there until 1897. From 1872 to 1879 he was district attorney for a district which embraced eight counties; was appointed by President Arthur United States attorney for the northern district of Iowa, but resigned for political reasons when President Cleveland was elected; again held the office under President Harrison; and in 1897 was appointed by President McKinley to be solicitor of the treasury, and so continued until 1910, when he resigned to take a trip around the world — visiting the Hawaiian Islands, the Philippines, China and Japan. Mr. O'Connell then lived for two years at San Diego, Calif., and now makes Washington his home. He is rated a very able lawyer, and evidently has prospered.

Edmund O'Connell, a brother of Maurice, was born in Constable November 20, 1848; was graduated from Franklin Academy in 1871; and a couple of years afterward removed to Bloomington, 11)., where he studied law, was admitted to the bar, and has since practiced the profession. It was at Bloomington that the Republican party in Illinois had its birth in 1856 at a meeting which was addressed by Abraham Lincoln in his famous "Lost Speech" (lost because not reported), but which those who heard it remembered throughout their lives as a magnificent effort, and which, in appealing to his hearers to join the Republican standard, he closed with —

"Come as the winds come, when forests are rended;
Come as the waves come, when navies are stranded."

In such an environment, and with his associations strongly Republican it was altogether natural that Mr. O'Connell should become a Republican notwithstanding his antecedents were all Democratic. Mr. O'Connell was for four years an alderman of Bloomington, eight years prosecuting attorney for his county, and for four years a member of the Legislature. At present he holds a quasi-judicial position with the public utilities commission of Illinois, enjoys a large private practice, and stands high as a citizen.

John G. O'Connell, brother of Maurice and Edmund, has been a resident of Tecumseh, Neb., for more than forty years, and has served several terms as county judge, and also in both Houses of the Legislature.

Richard S., another brother, and also a graduate of Franklin Academy in 1871, located at Cato, Wis., and became a physician. He died in 1906.

George, the youngest brother, prospered in railroading in Wisconsin and then as a manufacturer of wood pulp. He lives now in Los Angeles, Calif.

William T. O'Neil, born in Brighton February 7, 1850, studied law with Smith M. Weed at Plattsburgh, but considerations of health prevented him from completing his course and from engaging in practice. He located at St. Regis Falls in 1878, and was soon conspicuously identified with business interests there — becoming a merchant, building and conducting a hotel, and prosecuting lumbering enterprises. Later he was farmer, operator of creameries, manufacturer of chairs, and organizer with others of an electric light company, a water-works company, and a national bank. Between times financial misfortunes befell him, but he recovered eventually, paid every dollar of his debts in full, and at his death possessed a comfortable competence. Mr. O'Neil early became a power in local politics, served his town frequently as supervisor, and was in the Assembly for four years from 1883. During this period he had the reputation of being the best informed man in that body on pending measures generally, and was Theodore Roosevelt's principal aide and counselor, and the regulator of the latter's impetuosity. In 1884 the younger element in the Republican party made a contest for control of the State convention to choose delegates to the national convention, and won. It was commonly regarded as due to Mr. O'Neil's generalship that success was achieved. In 1902 Mr. O'Neil was a candidate for the Republican nomination for Congress, and, though almost every active and influential Republican in the county was for his opponent, he almost pulled through single handed, as a change of very few votes in the caucuses in certain towns would have given him the majority of delegates. In 1906 he was elected to the State Senate, at once taking high rank in that body, and was re-elected in 1908. His health began to fail in the latter year by reason, as he himself believed, of the change from an active, stirring outdoor life to the more luxurious and confining habits prevalent at Albany; and, adhering to his work when he ought to have been at home or in an institution, died during the third session of his service. Mr. O'Neil was strong with the people as a canvasser, straightforward and upright in all of his personal and public life, and well balanced. He did his own thinking, worked out problems for himself, and acted upon conscientious judgment. He died May 5, 1909.

Ashbel Parmelee, D. D., born at Stockbridge, Mass., October 18, 1784, moved to Vermont with his parents at an early age, and until 1802 did such work on the farm as would be expected from a boy poorly circumstanced. Having resolved to become a minister, he set about in earnest to acquire an education, but was so handicapped by eye trouble that for two years he could pursue his studies only by having fellow students read them to him. Thus it was not until 1808 that he was licensed to preach. Serving churches in Vermont for the next year or so, he came to Malone in 1809 to marry Lucy Winchester, a great-aunt of Mrs. Henry J. Merriam, which visit opened the way to his settlement at Malone in the latter part of the same year, to become pastor of the Congregational Church. His compensation was to be $400 a year, payable one-third in money and two-thirds in grain; and it never exceeded $650 per annum. The relation thus begun continued without a break for nearly thirty-six years, and fellowship with the society for sixteen years longer. During this latter period Doctor Parmelee preached in Bangor, Bellmont and other nearby places, as well as not infrequently in his old church, and for three years was prison chaplain at Dannemora. The weakness and infirmities that afflicted him in his young manhood disappeared within a few years, and, though of slight physique and apparently frail, he developed a capacity for great endurance and remarkable mental effort. He was all energized force, with untiring application, and his labors were prodigious. Besides his immediate pastoral work, he often gave two lectures or sermons a week in school houses in rural neighborhoods, and, taking a vacation, would travel on horseback and engage in missionary work for weeks at a time in St. Lawrence, Jefferson, Clinton and Essex counties. During the war of 1812 he acted as chaplain without pay in General Wilkinson's army. With it all, he built his church into a strong body, and himself into a dominating figure in the community. With an intellectual endowment of the highest order, and a strength and tenacity of conviction that no personal or public pressure could weaken or cause to waver, with inflexible standards of right and wrong, and with rigid conception of obligations of civic duty and even of the proprieties of individual walk and conduct, he so impressed upon the people generally, outside of his own church almost equally as within it, that whether or not men bore themselves as he believed and taught that they ought, they at least judged their friends and neighbors by test of whether they observed or disregarded Doctor Parmelee's dicta. Men of his time who had ample opportunity for observation and capacity for judgment were all agreed, even those of them who were not of his religious faith, that no man in Malone was ever so much of a factor in moulding the character of the community, or contributed so much to make the town what the best thought and the finest aspirations wished it to be. Of course his theology was of the type that is now commonly regarded as narrow and intolerant, but it was sincere and compelling to him, and was softened to others by a personal kindness and helpfulness that counted greatly. In a biography by his son I find the following: " He feared his Maker; he feared nothing else. Whenever he discovered a schism or heresy arising in his church, or an evil gaining root in the community, he put his foot boldly upon it. And he never took it up until the viper was crushed. It was a hard foot to get out of the way." Doctor Parmelee often expressed the hope that his end might come without warning, and his wish was gratified. May 24, 18(52, when in apparently better health than he had enjoyed for a number of weeks, and while in the very act of performing a neighborly service, he fell into the arms of his friend and expired. Former Vice-President Wheeler so appraised his work and venerated his character that on a memorial tablet which he erected he caused it to be inscribed that he was "instantaneously translated."

Ashbel B. Parmelee, born in Malone October 14, 1816, was a lifelong resident except for six or seven years, and was one of the strongest, must useful and most exemplary citizens that the town ever had. He taught school in the western part of the State and at Kingston for two or three years, beginning in 1835, and also studied law while so engaged. After admission to the bar he practiced in Illinois for a time — returning to Malone in 1842. Here also he practiced until 1865, though not very actively from 1854 because engaged for eleven years following that date as State canal appraiser. It was at a time when graft in this work had been scandalous, and Mr. Parmelee's service purified conditions notably. From 1850 to 1854 he was district attorney of Franklin county, and during Colonel Seaver's absence in the army for two years during the civil war was in editorial charge of the Palladium. In 1865 he located in New York city for a year or two in the practice of his profession, and, then returning to Malone, became a partner with James H. Titus in the land and lumber business, which passed subsequently to the sole ownership of himself and his son, Morton S. Besides the benefits that Malone as a whole derived from the prosecution of his large industrial interests, scores of those holding lands under contract with him enjoyed in a measure known only to themselves forbearance and bounty at his hands which saved them from serious losses, if not from actual ruin. Of strong convictions, intelligent to a degree, upright in every walk of life, Mr. Parmelee commanded wide and profound respect; and, though far from what is known as a "good mixer," was of warm sociability in the circle of his immediate friends, and had a deep and abiding interest in everything that looked to the welfare of the community. He was for many years president of the village board of education and of Morningside Cemetery Association — giving unstintedly of his time and abilities to the duties of the positions. Mr. Parmelee died of paralysis, following a surgical operation, August 17, 1886.

Morton S. Parmelee, born in Malone March 2, 1850, possessed the abilities and many of the characteristics which were to be expected from his lineage, as grandson of the most intellectual divine who ever served in Northern New York, and as the son of Hon. Ashbel B. Parmelee, one of the strongest lawyers and most capable men in the county. Mr. Parmelee's early intention, to enter the profession of the law, was abandoned while he was yet in his youth by reason of the conviction that his father needed his assistance in the large business enterprise which he had undertaken. Upon that consideration he gave up his college course, and in 1868 identified himself with the land and lumber business of Titus & Parmelee — afterward that of A. B. Parmelee & Son. He combined the qualities, rarely found in one individual, of the student and book-lover with a keen and broad grasp of business and public problems, so that to a refined appreciation of the arts and wide literary attainments he joined particular aptitude for the every-day, practical transactions of life. In the church he was a valued counselor and a strong supporter, and a foremost figure in nearly every enterprise that looked to the betterment of village, town or county conditions. In particular, Mr. Parmelee was active and helpful in giving Malone an improved water supply, in making Morningside Cemetery beautiful, in organizing and managing the Northern New York Institution for Deaf Mutes, in creating our present fire department system, in fostering the public schools, and notably in the movement which brought to the county a new railway, reaching to Montreal on the north and to the New York Central System on the south. No man was more interested in political affairs in a wholly unselfish way, and though he could never be induced himself to stand for office he was always a generous giver to campaign funds, and responded cheerfully to demands to address public meetings. As a speaker his efforts had a fine finish, and his delivery was magnetic and dramatic — thrilling and captivating his audiences. Mr. Parmelee's charities were many and large, but so studiously concealed that few besides the recipients were even aware of them. He died July 24, 1897..

Jabez Parkhurst, born in Sharon, Vt., October 24, 1785, was graduated from the University of Vermont in 1810, and, having been admitted to the bar in 1814, located soon afterward at Fort Covington. He was for a time a teacher in the old Harison Academy at Malone. A virile, 1wsitive character, and well grounded in the law, he made his mark as a practitioner and in all of his relations as a citizen. He was an extremist in almost everything, and was elected to the Assembly in 1833 and 1834 as an anti-Mason, and was the unsuccessful candidate of the Liberty party for the same office in 184-1. He was a militant abolitionist, and often harbored runaway slaves at his home. He died October 31, 1865.

Henry A. Paddock, born in Fort Covington May 2, 1823, was admitted to the bar in 1848, and was elected district attorney as a Democrat in 1853. Casting in his lot with the Republican party in 1855, of course a re-election was out of the question, but in 1859 he was chosen county judge, and held the office until 1868. During his incumbency he removed to Malone, and after the expiration of his term practiced his profession, and, forty-odd years ago, operated extensively in a general business way. He became the owner of a large flouring mill just north of the village, was interested in saw mills, and bought and sold real estate on a large scale. Among other ventures, he engaged in selling his indorsement on notes to those who were ready to pay handsomely for enjoyment of his credit, which, however, availed creditors but little, as nothing was collectible when obligors failed and debts matured. Mr. Paddock was a national bank examiner from 1875 to 1879, and a good one. Of keen mentality, well read in the law, possessing a broad and eager business sense, and aggressive, almost to belligerency, in any contest that aroused his interest, Mr. Paddock occupied for a long time a large place in the public eye, and was a force in all local affairs. He died January 4, 1884.

Frederick G. Paddock, born at Fort Covington April 15, 1859, removed to Malone with his parents in 1866, and has since resided there contiguously. He was graduated from the Columbia Law School in New York city in 1884, and was admitted to the bar the same year. He was elected district attorney in 1892, continuing in the office for six years, was president of the village of Malone in 1903, and was elected county judge and surrogate in 1907, and re-elected in 1913. Judge Paddock has been active in Republican politics, has evinced a strong interest in public questions from his early manhood, and has been particularly active and useful in the work of promoting better highways and in all social service problems.

James S. Phillips was born in Westville July 12, 1824, studied medicine and practiced the profession there from 1855 to 1859, and then located at Malone. Of quiet tastes and habits, he mingled little in a conspicuous way in politics or public affairs, though always interested in every worthy enterprise, and mindful of the duties of good citizenship. He enjoyed a large practice, and also gave considerable attention to hop farming. He died June 16, 1890.

William W. Paddock was born in Malone March 19, 1825, and always made his home in the county. He was a collegiate, and his private life was blameless. For many years he was a member of the board of education of the village school district of Malone. He was elected county clerk as a Republican, and served for two terms. In 1872 he became a Liberal Republican, and because he used the machinery and influence of his office against the party which had given him the position, partisan bitterness against him was pronounced. He was, however, unquestionably conscientious in the matter. As the candidate of the Democrats and Liberal Republicans for re-election in 1873, he was overwhelmingly defeated. He died May 17, 1888.

John R. Primrose, of whom my first knowledge was that he was a resident of Brooklyn, began coming to Malone as a buyer of hops for S. & F. Uhlman about 1870, and was thereafter an annual visitor here until 1886, when he located as a resident, to take the management of the large hop farms then owned by the Uhlmans. He at once took an active part in local Democratic politics, and from his city experience taught the home contingent many points. He was elected village president. He died July 10, 1890.

Charles H. Palmer was born in Malone in 1831, and died April 30, 1891. He followed the business of farming, but was best known as a teacher, having taught school in many districts in the county, and also conducted old-fashioned singing schools all through this northern section. Of upright character, even tempered and social inclinations, he enjoyed a wide acquaintance, and was generally liked and esteemed.

Albert M. Phelps, born at Alburgh, Vt., in 1851, located in Burke in 1873 for the practice of medicine, removed to Chateaugay in 1876, and established himself in New York city in 1887. Dr. Phelps had an interesting personality, engaging and animated in conversation, overflowing with energy and buoyancy of spirit, and delighting in association with his friends. His animadversions upon medicine as a science were sweeping and extreme. He professed a contempt for it, and insisted that practice under it was practically altogether guesswork — guessing, first, what might be the ailment of a patient, and, next, guessing what and how much of a drug should be given for its relief. But for surgery he had a great respect and love, and became one of the world's most brilliant and skillful operators. For a time the older practitioners in the county distrusted his counsels, questioned if there could be safety in the then almost or quite untried operations which he proposed, and even wondered if his delight in using the knife did not at times affect his judgment as to the necessity or advisability of applying it. But the exceptional skill which he developed, his sureness in finding and following the right course, and the marvelous cures that he wrought in cases of deformity won for him within a few years a standing in the profession which was outranked by but few in the world. The man who, hardly more than a boy, had been doubted by his elders became a lecturer in the medical department of the University of Vermont, was consulted and employed by the most eminent practitioners in the metropolis, stood among the foremost in the faculties of great institutions, and was even called by universities in Germany to lecture and demonstrate before their professors and students. He died October 10, 1902.

Benjamin Raymond was born in Ackworth, N. H., in 1798. He married Jane Latham Conant, a direct descendant of Roger Conant on one side, and on the other of Mary Chilton, who was the first woman lhat set foot on Plymouth Rock. Mr. and Mrs. Raymond moved to Fort Covington about 1820. Mr. Raymond was a millwright, and built many mills in the northern part of the county — afterward engaging in mercantile business with remarkable success, having been one of the two merchants at French Mills in early days who did not fail. In 1855 he removed to M alone, and, probably more than any other one man, initiated and carried through the project of giving the village a gravity system of water-works. He was also the father of the creation of the cemetery that is now known as Morningside, and gave to the undertaking and its development a degree of unrewarded attention and care that makes the present generation debtor to him in no small measure. Few men were more useful in a public way, possessed sounder practical judgment, displayed a larger public spirit, or commanded more of general confidence nnd respect. He died in M-alone November 17, 1870.

Thomas Richey was born in Malone in 1812, and in 1844 was licensed by the Methodist Episcopal conference to preach. He served many parishes in Franklin county and elsewhere in Northern New York, and was superannuated in 1889. He died at Watertown July 10, 1892.

Orson L. Reynolds, who was born in Bombay in 1829, removed to Bangor, and then to Brandon, where he was the founder of the large lumbering business which has been prosecuted since his death by his sons under the style of Reynolds Brothers. Mr. Reynolds was supervisor of Brandon for a number of years, and the board had no more attentive or shrewder member. He died April 8, 1888.

Matt C. Ransom (whose name is not Matt at all, but Madison) was born at Mooers January 23, 1858, and located at Fort Covington as a lawyer in 1883. Studious, industrious, self-reliant and endowed with a good mind, he quickly gained an enviable standing in his profession, and though the field was not one to afford many large opportunities he nevertheless had a considerable number of important cases, and his work in them attracted favorable attention. In those days he was active in politics, and a number of times was the Democratic candidate for county office. In 1896, when the Fanners National Bank of Malone had deposits of only $395,000 and a surplus of only $10,000, Mr. Ransom was offered the vice-presidency and practically the general management of the institution. Accepting, he came to Malone, and ever since has given his time and energies almost exclusively to the business of banking, and with such success that the bank now has deposits of about $785,000 and a surplus of $225,000. It has the remarkable record of never having passed a dividend in over fifty years. Mr. Ransom is one of the board of managers of the St. Lawence Hospital for the Insane, and a trustee of the Alice Hyde Memorial Hospital and of the Northern New York Institution for Deaf Mutes. He is also a director of The Lawrence-Webster Company.

George M. Sabin, born at Guildhall, Vt., in 1805, came to Malone in 1834. He was a lumberman and farmer, and became a major in the old militia. He died July 31, 1890.

Eli B. Smith was born in Chateaugay August 11, 1806, and made that place his home for about sixty years, when he removed to Malone. Though always leading a quiet life, and apparently caring for little that was not of a business nature, he yet had a very strong interest in public matters. He gave the site for the Chateaugay high school, a lot for an engine house in Chateaugay, the organ to the Chateaugay Presbyterian church, a considerable collection of books to the Wead Library in Malone, and the chimes to the Congregational church of Malone. He died January 15, 1890.

Henry B. Smith, son of Colonel Thomas Smith of 1812 war fame, was born in Chateaugay January 5, 1805, and in his youth worked on a farm and in his father's tavern. As soon as he was old enough to assume responsibilities himself he became a merchant, and, generally expanding his activities, engaged in large real estate and lumbering operations, so that after a time he dominated most enterprises in both Chateaugay and Burke. First and last, he served his town as supervisor for a dozen years, and held also every other town office that he would consent to accept. He was the Democratic leader and autocrat in all the eastern part of the county for a long time, became judge of the court of common pleas in 1833, its first judge ten years later, State Senator in 1852-3, was deputy collector of customs at Chateaugay for a number of years, and for nearly a decade was collector of the district of Champlain — the only Franklin county man who ever held that office. In a business way, in politics and in mentality Mr. Smith was one of the biggest men that the county ever had in his time, though it is found in his record that as a member of a special committee of the board of supervisors he recommended about 1850 a sale of the site of the existing county buildings, which, as it has turned out, would have been a wise procedure, and the erection of new structures on the Arsenal Green, which would have been an unfortunate encroachment on the park, and also in disregard of the restrictions contained in the deed of conveyance of the property of the State. Mr. Smith accumulated a probably larger property than any one else in the county had ever possessed up to that lime. He died August 22, 1863.

Edmund F. Sargent, born at Brattleboro, Vt., April 18, 1815, .located at Bangor as a boy. He became a farmer, and was interested largely in the manufacture of starch. He served the town as supervisor, and was a member of Assembly in 1868-9. Of sound judgment and upright life, he was respected and popular. He died November 9, 1889.

Sherman Stancliff, born at Shoreham, Vt., August 28, 1817, came to Malone in 1833. For many years whenever the town had a particularly ugly piece of road making or repairing, or any individual wanted a dam built on honor, or a lumber job put through with a rush, Mr. Stancliff was always looked to take the contract. He invariably did the work as it ought to be done, regardless of the agreed price, and more often than not he worked at a loss. Upon one occasion, in the time when churches in all of the country districts were open for political meetings, the writer had a speaking appointment with the late John I. Gilbert at Chasm Falls, and Mr. Stancliff acted as chairman of the meeting. His politics and his religion were vital things to him, and he believed in one as devoutly as in the other. Thus when the speaking was over, he announced that the meeting would close with the singing of the Doxology! Simple, straightforward and conscientious, everybody liked and respected Sherman Stancliff. He died May 3, 1892.

S. Dwight Stevens (father of Halbert D. of the Malone Farmer), born at Whittingham, Vt., in 1818, settled in Bangor, and then in Moira, where he remained until 1875. Mr. Stevens was one of the founders of the Republican party in the latter town, but in no sense as a politician. He believed in the new organization as he believed in Christianity, and for much the same reasons. Though without training as a public speaker, he espoused Republicanism and expounded its principles in every school house in Moira. In 1875 he removed to Malone, and engaged in merchandising for a few years. He was a man of intelligent and conscientious convictions, self-poised, and highly respected. He died November 24, 1899.

Baker Stevens, born in Canada in 1827, came to Moira as a young man, and engaged in farming work in summer and teaching school in winter. From 1849 to 1852 or a little later the California fever raged here very much as Colorado attracted so many people twenty-odd years afterward, and Mr. Stevens was one of a party of eighteen young men from the western part of the county who was stricken by it, and adventured the trip in 1852, making the voyage " around the Horn," and being 152 days from New York to San Francisco. While Mr. Stevens's search for gold was moderately successful, more than once he missed " striking it rich" by the merest chance, as, for illustration, he dug one day at the foot of a tree, choosing a spot that was in the shade, and found but little gold. Had he worked where the sun was beating down, on the opposite side of the tree, he would have realized a rich fortune, which n worker there a day or so later unearthed. Mr. Stevens returned from California in 1855, and engaged in merchandising at Moira, and afterward at North Bangor and Malone, but for the final forty-odd years of his life was without confining or active occupation. He was always greatly interested in educational affairs, and for many years was a valued member of the board of education of the village school district of Malone, Though never particularly active in politics, he was many times (usually unwillingly) the Democratic nominee for important local offices, and was invariably deeply interested for good government and in public policies generally. Of broad intelligence, spotless character, and delighting in discussion of abstract questions, Mr. Stevens was highly regarded, and enjoyed a marked degree of public confidence. He died January 2, 1917.

William Cullen Stevens, born in Moira August 29, 1848, began business life as a clerk at that place, but soon afterward engaged as a traveling salesman with a wagon for a notions house, and then became a commercial traveler for a large Boston wholesale firm. In 1874 he engaged in merchandising in Malone as a member of a hardware firm, and later in dry goods. From his earliest manhood Mr. Stevens was intensely interested in politics, and became a party worker. He was elected to the Assembly in 1888, and re-elected in 1889 and 1890 — succeeding well in the duties of the office, particularly in forwarding local measures. It was during his service that the first appropriation for the Northern New York Institution for Deaf Mutes was secured. For a number of years following his service as Assemblyman he was the financial clerk of the Assembly, and traveled between sessions as a salesman for The Lawrence-Webster Company of Malone. Mr. Stevens was genial and companionable, and made friends readily. He died suddenly the night of October 2, 1897, after a day of unusual activity, and during which he had been chosen chairman of the Republican county committee — a position to which he had long aspired. Mrs. Stevens nwoke in the morning and found him dead.

Edward L. Stevens, born in Malone May 20, 1867, engaged in teaching after completing his academic and collegiate course of studies — his first important work in this line having been as principal of the Chateaugay high school, and then in a similar capacity at Catskill. From the latter place he went to a professorship in the normal school at Jamaica, und from there wns appointed one of the superintendents of schools for the city of New York, with assignment for service in the borough of Queens, where he was credited with having brought "order out of chaos" in his territory. Upon a later reorganization of the educational system of the city, Mr. Stevens was transferred to the borough of Manhattan, and for several years was second in rank in charge of the superintendence of the city's schools. He was an indefatigable worker of fine executive powers, and was fully abreast of the best educational ideas and methods. At the time of his death he was engaged in the preparation of a history of the State of New York which was to be particularly adapted to school uses. Mr. Stevens died April 3, 1914.

Calvin Skinner, born in Royalton, Vt., May 29, 1818, located in Malone in 1842 for the practice of his profession as a physician. With a cheery manner, a sympathetic temperament, a skill to alleviate suffering, and an energy, courage and character that made him a high-class citizen, Dr. Skinner became one of the best known and most highly regarded residents of the county. In addition to his active professional work, covering a period of more than forty years, he was conspicuous in politics and in forwarding local public undertakings. He was one of eleven men to organize the Republican party in Franklin county in 1855, was a delegate to the national convention that nominated Abraham Lincoln in 1860, was always a worker in campaigns, and held the office of postmaster of Malone for fourteen years. In 1862 he went to Virginia as a volunteer surgeon for a short time, and later became the regularly commissioned surgeon of the 106th regiment. Dr. Skinner was one of the incorporators of the Malone Water-Works Company in 1857, was one of the founders and for years a trustee of the Northern New York Institution for Deaf-Mutes, and was identified from time to time with other home enterprises of value and importance to the town. For ten years preceding his death he was confined to his home by a spinal trouble traceable to his army service. He died September 24, 1903 — almost, if not quite, the last of the generation next after the pioneers who did so much to give tone and character to Malone, and make it a town worth living in.

William C. Skinner, son of Calvin Skinner, M. D., was born in Malone January 26, 1855, and after graduating at Franklin Academy entered Trinity College at Hartford, Conn., and completed the course there. He then studied law for a time, but, having made congenial and influential friends in Hartford, located in that city, and engaged in the wool business extensively. He was appointed aide on the staff of Governor Bulkley, with the rank of colonel. A few years ago he acquired an interest in the Colts Arms Company, and became one of its principal officers. His various business enterprises have given him large wealth without indisposing him to be active and -useful, lie has an ardent love for the Adirondacks, and owns a large private park on Deer river in the town of Duane, and another in the town of Brighton—the latter being the property known as McCollums. Upon the former he has spent a good many thousand dollars in erecting buildings and in developing a power plant for lighting his camp and grounds by electricity. Though having ceased to call Malone his home some forty yean ago, he yet continues to have an active and affectionate interest in the town — being one of the owners of the Ballard clothing factory and mill, and having recently presented to St. Mark's Church a fine and commodious rectory, in the erection of which something like fifteen thousand dollars was expended, and having also built a nurses' home at a cost of twelve thousand dollars as a memorial to his father and mother for the Alice Hyde Memorial Hospital. Colonel Skinner has an engaging personality, and is as popular socially as he is efficient in business.

Joel J. Seaver, born at Salisbury, Vt., December 17, 1822, came to Bangor as a boy, and learned the tinsmith's trade with an uncle, James Bigelow. In 1842 he entered the Palladium office as an apprentice, and in 1850 became one of the proprietors and editors of that publication — continuing his interest in it, at times actively and at other periods only as part proprietor and as advisor of its active managers, to the day of his death. He was the strongest editorial writer in this section of the State — virile, positive and trenchant. When Sumter was fired upon he was the first man in Franklin county to enlist, and left Malone in early May, 1861, as captain of a company which was mustered into service as a unit of the famous 16th regiment. He was promoted major, lieutenant-colonel and colonel, and at the expiration of his two years' term of service was offered a commission as brigadier-general. Colonel Seaver was a delegate to the constitutional convention of 1867, und was postmaster at Malone for four years from 1874. He was also for many years a member of the board of education of the village school district of Malone, and at one time its president. He died November 29, 1899.

Daniel H. Stanton, born at Strafford, N. H., in November, 1830, came in 1846 to Bellmont, where his father had preceded him. He learned the printer's trade in Malone, and followed it until he entered the army as a member of the 98th regiment in 1861. He became adjutant, was severely wounded, and made a fine military record. After the war he was appointed deputy and then assessor of internal revenue taxes, and took up the study of surveying, in which profession he attained to a very high standing. He was county treasurer for six years from 1876, and also served Malone as supervisor. During his later years Mr. Stanton was probably the best authority in the county in regard to local military records, as he was also a mine of information concerning most county, town and village affairs and history. To exceptional natural abilities he added a remarkably retentive memory, and was a notably interesting companion and useful citizen. He died June 5, 1897.

Patrick H. Shields, born in Ireland, July 17, 1831, came to this country in his youth, and to Malone in 1855 to enter the employ of the old Northern Railroad under William A. Wheeler. Willing, energetic and clever, he was advanced from humble duties to more important positions, and, making his home in Mr. Wheeler's household, became the latter's agent and representative in many personal and political matters. During the civil war Mr. Shields recruited a company for the 106th regiment, and served for a time as its captain. He then engaged in the grocery business at Malone, and after a time became a buyer of hops for a New York firm, which failed, and involved him for a good many thousand dollars. A little later he became the Franklin county representative of S. & F. Uhlmann, and continued with them for twenty years or more. After the close of the war, when contests for county nominations were waged more in the modern way than had been the former practice, Mr. Shields still served Mr. Wheeler in transmitting his plans and wishes to lieutenants throughout the county, and by-and-by began to operate in the field independently. His old relations with Mr. Wheeler were understood to continue long after the latter had discontinued employing him, and the severance of such relations not being generally known, Mr. Shields was able not infrequently to further his own schemes through the assumption of those with whom he had had earlier dealings that he still bore the Wheeler commission. He was the first man in Franklin county to "pack" a caucus, and by the procedure defeated Mr. Wheeler in his own town. He was thus a considerable political factor locally for a good many years. Mr. Shields was for a long time a deputy collector of customs, with only nominal duties, so that he had abundant leisure for political activity. His Republicanism was usually of the unswerving sort, and with two or three exceptions he accepted enthusiastically all convention results, whether they reflected his own preferences or not; and as he used to say himself, "no man could flop quicker than " he. He was a big-hearted, generous Irishman, seldom showing vindictiveness, and was liked personally even by those who resented and abhorred some of his methods. He died July 19, 1899.

Julius C. Saunders, born in Dickinson in 1833, was one of a considerable number from this county who caught the early California gold fever, and upon his return entered upon the study of the law, and became a practitioner in Malone. During the first Cleveland administration he was a special treasury agent, and was often the Democratic candidate for one or another county office. He died in Malone November 12, 1896.

John M. Spann, born in Indianapolis, Ind., April 29, 1850, became identified with Malone by marriage with a daughter of Darius W. Lawrence. Mr. Spann made his home here from 1881 until 189/J, engaging in the hardware business, and then in insurance. In 1892 he returned to Indianapolis, to join with his father and brother in insurance and real estate operations, and became so prominent in that city because of his likeable qualities and wise judgment that there were few improvements or enterprises of a general character with which he did not have some connection. He was secretary of a large insurance corporation, president of the Institution for Feeble-Minded Children at Fort Wayne, and president of the Commercial Club; and in all matters commanded the entire respect and trust of the community. Of gentle courtesy, of the most equable temper of any one that the writer ever knew, of never-failing cheerfulness, and of agreeable accommodation to the wishes of others in non-essentials, but with a resolute will and unyielding attitude in matters involving principle, Mr. Spann was thoroughly a manly man, and easily won and surely held the affectionate regard of everybody with whom he had relations. As he turned from the railway ticket office in Indianapolis, after buying a ticket for visiting the institution at Fort Wayne of which he was president, he fell unconscious, and soon expired, on February 5, 1902.

Fred D. Shepard, born in Ellenburgh, September 11, 1855, came to Malone from Chateaugay in his youth with his parents, and after graduation from Franklin Academy studied medicine at Ann Arbor, Mich. In 1882 he went to Asia Minor as a medical missionary, and was at once given charge of the development and administration of the medical department of the Central Turkey College at Aintab, which had been established six years earlier, and to which a hospital was added in 1884. For thirty-three years Dr. Shepard continued in his work with no furlough except one of a twelvemonth which he passed in the United States in improving himself in modern surgery. He fitted many Armenians to practice medicine intelligently and with efficiency; responded to almost constant insistent calls of the sick in all of the neighboring villages — always traveling on horseback, and averaging for long periods to ride three hundred miles or more per month; inspired his fellow workers to continued effort; prescribed to hospital patients daily when not in the field; fought the plague; administered relief funds in feeding the starving, organizing industries and rebuilding homes after merciless massacres perpetrated upon Christians by the Turks; averaged to perform four hundred and fifty major surgical operations a year; gave himself heart and soul to impressing upon the native minds "what is meant by vital Christianity" and in founding and maintaining churches; and won for himself the profound respect, and in many cases the warm affection, of both Turks and Christians. Worn and weakened by the strain and work of almost a year's unintermittent labors in combatting an epidemic of typhus, he. was himself stricken by the disease, and died at Aintab, December 18, 1915.

John L. Southwick, born in Bombay April 24, 1858, was graduated from Franklin Academy in 1878, and from Cornell University in 1883. He became a member of the editorial staff of the Burlington (Vt.) Free Press in 1884, and in 1890 was advanced to the position of editor-in-chief, in which he has done thoughtful and creditable work. Mr. Southwick has a fine and well-balanced mind, is a graceful and vigorous writer, and is controlled in all of his work by high principle. His editorial efforts have won for him an excellent standing with the people of Vermont generally, and he is a force for good in all matters affecting the State. He is chairman of the board of trustees of the Vermont free school fund; in 1912 was a delegate to the Republican national convention, and in 1916 a Presidential elector.

Francis E. Sawyer was born in Malone in 1872, and as a boy was remarkably precocious, evincing a particular interest in music and literary composition. After graduating at Franklin Academy, he went to New York to study music, and was quickly recognized as an exquisite pianist, and became a composer of stately oratorio measures and ballad music. He became the associate and coworker of eminent composers of far greater age, who deemed him a genius. Of frail physique, a high strung nervous temperament and a busy, never-sleeping brain, he broke down, and died January 20, 1896.

Samuel C. F. Thorndike, born in Malone October 12, 1810, had as his first business adventure the delivery of the Franklin Telegraph to its subscribers in Malone, making the distribution on horseback, and calling people to their doors to receive the paper by ringing blasts on his post-horn. While still a boy he engaged in clerking for various mercantile firms in Fort Covington, Westville and Helena, with a brief venture in merchandising on his own account in Fort Covington. Next he clerked in Troy, and, returning to Malone, was elected county clerk in 1849 by the Whigs, squeezing through by only two majority. In this period he became active in the old State militia, rising to the rank of brigadier-general, and upon the conclusion of his term of office as county clerk entered the service of the 0. & L. C. R. ft., with which he continued for twenty years — for a part of the time as cashier and treasurer. In his various clerical and accountant engagements he handled millions of dollars, and no account that he kept was ever even a penny out of balance, nor so confused but that it could be readily analyzed and understood. During the civil war Mr. Thorndike was provost marshal for St. Lawrence and Franklin counties, and was conspicuously efficient in filling quotas and conducting the drafts. In his later years he was a part of the time in trade in if alone, and otherwise led a retired life. He was a man of warm, quick impulses, of a grim humor, an ardent friend, of sterling honesty, and of marked independence of character. He died April 2, 1882.

John L. Thorndike, son of Samuel C. F., was born in Malone September 21, 1834, and when a young man went to California, where he became associated with Henry Meiggs, and accompanied him to South America. Having been Mr. Meiggs's right hand man in all of his mammoth enterprises in Peru, he succeeded upon the death of Mr. Meiggs, in 1878, to most of his interests, carried some of them through to completion, and undertook big mining and construction works for himself. In connection with another American he was rated in 1888 as owning a hundred million dollars' worth of mining concessions and railroad properties in Peru and Chile, a large part of which the governments confiscated, though Mr. Thorndike subsequently recovered some parts of the properties, and saved a considerable fortune out of the wreck. He died at Lima October 13, 1901.

Hiram H. Thompson, born in Malone March 16, 1822, was for many years a leading business man and citizen. In 1846, when hardly any money was in circulation, and trading was almost altogether upon a credit basis, Mr. Thompson and Edwin L. Meigs opened a store, and conducted it for years upon the ready-pay principle. No one was permitted to open an account, and all goods had to be paid for on the spot either in cash or produce. The venture, never before tried in the county, was deemed by older dealers to be recklessly foolish and certain to fail; but it proved a pronounced success, and gave to the partners the beginning of the fortunes which each accumulated. After a few years Mr. Thompson retired from mercantile pursuits, and engaged in farming, buying the Hardy place, and erecting the brick house still standing there. Later he became a tanner, again a merchant, and a large manufacturer of starch. As a tanner he was burned out three times. Before the civil war he established a hardware business, which is still continued under the name and title of H. D. Thompson & Co., and which has always had a large trade. Mr. Thompson's only experience in public office was as a deputy collector of internal revenue, and he used to say that from a financial standpoint he made a mistake in accepting the appointment. Though in manner and temperament not adapted to political management, he yet had a considerable part in determining local policies and action by reason of trenchant expression of his views to his particular friends and associates, who, impressed by the soundness of his judgment, saw to adoption of his counsel by conventions and the political organization. Mr. Thompson was public spirited, intelligent, conscientious and virile. At times direct to brusqueness and positive almost to severity, he was nevertheless sympathetic and kind of heart, and attached himself strongly to the circle of his immediate friends. He died August 18, 1900.

Horace A. Taylor, born at Morristown, New York, August 8, 1824, came to Bangor with his parents in 1828; and studied law and was admitted to the bar in Malone. In 1862 and again in 1865 he was elected district attorney, and served as county judge from 1878 to 1890. For a number of years he was interested in the manufacture of starch, and for a time had a part in the experiment in Bangor of making tanning extract from bark. His business enterprises were not successful, however. As a practitioner he was neither energetic nor aggressive, but was generally regarded as a safe adviser and a fairly good judge of law. He died March 29, 1893.

Chandler Newell Thomas, born in Bangor July 8, 1834, prepared for college at Franklin Academy, graduated at Middlebury College in 1861, taught in Castleton (Vt.) Seminary in 1861 and 1862, and in. the latter year entered Auburn Theological Seminary, where he graduated in 1865. In the same year he became pastor of the Presbyterian church at Fort Covington, and continued in that relation for seventeen years. Mr. Thomas had a fine bass voice, highly cultivated, and while a student at Middlebury became a member of a glee club which toured Vermont and Northern New York, giving very popular entertainments; and while at Fort Covington he taught singing schools and organized and conducted local musical conventions. He was active also in support of the old Northern New York Musical Association, participating interestedly and helpfully in its affairs until the organization went out of existence — an unfortunate and deplorable culmination, due to jealousy between its Potsdam and Malone members. Upon the conclusion of Mr. Thomas's pastorate at Fort Covington he removed to Port Henry, where he served the church at that place for eight years. He was located afterward at New Haven, Vt., at Bristol, Vt., and at Castle Rock, Colorado, where he died February 2, 190S. Mr. Thomas was a trustee of Middlebury College from 1889 to 190S, and a director of the Vermont Domestic Missionary Society in 1898. He was a devout man, a faithful minister, gratefully remembered for good works in every community to which he ministered.

John M. Thomas, D. D., LL.D., son of Rev. Chandler N. Thomas, born at Fort Covington December 27, 1869, prepared for college at Franklin Academy; was graduated from Middlebury College in 1890; entered Union Theological Seminary the same year — graduating in 1893. He took a postgraduate course for two years. He was a student in the University of Marburg, Germany, in 1&03. He was ordained in 1893, and served as pastor of the Arlington Avenue Presbyterian church at East Orange, N". J., from 1893 to 1908, when he was elected to the presidency of Middlebury College, which position he still fills. Doctor Thomas was a member in 1908-11 of the Vermont commission on the tercentenary of the discovery of Lake Champlain; member of the Vermont State board of education 1912-14; and chairman of the same for two years; chairman of the commission on conservation of the natural resources of Vermont 1910—12; and chaplain of the first infantry of the Vermont national guard 1913-16. He is a contributor to The Independent, The Nation, The Congregationalist, etc., and the author of "The Christian Faith and the Old Testament." The degree of D. D. was conferred upon him by Middlebury in 1907, by Amherst in 1908 and by Dartmouth in 1909, and that of LL.D. by the University of Vermont in 1911. The work of Doctor Thomas as president of Middlebury College has been strikingly successful, but only through persistent and arduous effort by a man in whom are united a remarkably winsome personality, supreme tactfulness, and, strangely, broad business capacity with profound scholarship. Since Doctor Thomas became the head of the institution the college property has been increased in value, by gifts persuaded by him, from $225.000 to $745,000, the endowment fund more than doubled in the same way, the annual income quadrupled, the faculty enlarged from ten professors to thirty, the number of students multiplied by three, and the tuition receipts lifted from $4,904 to $37,484, annually, with new departments added and the courses of study broadened. In June, 1918, Doctor Thomas completed the raising of a further fund of $300,000 for the college, upon the success of which effort an additional contribution of $100,000 by a single donor was conditioned. The bare recital testifies to Doctor Thomas's great efficiency, and stamps him as peculiarly fitted for his trust. In October, 1918, he was commissioned a chaplain in the United States army, with a view to an overseas assignment.

Samuel Clark Wead, born in Brandon, Vt., September 20, 1805, came to Malone with his father, Jacob, in 1815. Jacob became a partner with Benjamin Clark, his brother-in-law, in merchandising at the corner of Main and Webster streets, and afterward, operating by himself, had his residence and a store combined on Elm street, adjacent to the present Episcopal church; and also engaged in what were for the time other considerable enterprises. Samuel C. began business in partnership with Guy Meigs in 1824, opening a store at Westville, prosecuting lumbering there and in Fort Covington, and also manufacturing and dealing in pot and pearl ashes. In 1826 the firm lumbered extensively in Canada, and in 1829 leased from Jacob Wead a saw mill in Constable and the several properties at the point known as "whiskey hollow," north of the village of Malone. These included a saw mill, a grist mill, distillery, brick yard, pottery and rope walk, and to them the lessees soon added a forge—buying the Hollembeck ore bed, west of the village, for their supply of iron. They also opened a store in a wing of the dwelling house of Hiram Horton on the site of the Rutland passenger station, but, having erected in 1831 the store building now occupied by the Peoples National Bank, on the corner of Mill and Main streets, changed their location to the latter point. They also owned and operated a steamboat between Fort Covington and Montreal, which was the first to run the rapids above the latter city. Mr. Meigs died in 1855, when Mr. Wead formed a new partnership with his son, Edwin L. Meigs, and Isaac P. Wilson to lumber in a big way in Canada, and untill another with Benjamin S. W. Clark and John A. Fuller to conduct a store in Malone, which latter arrangement continued until 1863. Mr. Wead had engaged also at various times in lumbering at Chasm Falls nnd in Bellmont, and was for years the Franklin county correspondent of the Clinton County Bank at Plattsburgh, in which capacity he did at his store practically all of the banking business of the county until in 1846, at the same place, he established the Franklin County Bank, the first in the county, as a private or individual institution, in which New York city gentlemen were partners. This bank went into liquidation upon the organization of the Bank of Malone (capitalized at $100,000, and later increased to $150,000), in which also Mr. Wead was the principal mover and president, with William A. Wheeler as cashier. A bank building was erected on the site of the present village library, and the institution flourished in a modest way, and served the business interests of the county usefully until 1865, when, upon the organization of the National Bank of Malone, it was closed — Mr. Wead having had a leading part in the formation of the new institution, and serving as its president until his death. Mr. Wead was very active in the movement to accomplish the building of the old Northern Railroad, and, besides having worked zealously in its interest at home, spent six months in Boston in effort to enlist capital for its building; and in 1847, with Hiram Horton, Guy Meigs and John L. Russell, gave the company ten acres of land upon condition that it locate its shops in Malone. He was also a leader in forming the Malone Water Works Co. in 1857 and the Malone Gas Light Co. about 1870. In 1872 he began the erection of a paper mill, which was his last considerable business enterprise, and I think the only one for which he was responsible that he did not make a success. Mr. Wead was elected county treasurer in 1848, and from an early age was particularly and beneficially interested in educational affairs. He was the first president of the village district board of education in 1867, so serving for seven years, and with results that prompted his successor in office to write: "If Mr. Wead had done nothing for Malone beyond what he did for its schools, that alone would entitle him to the affectionate remembrance of its citizens." In nll of his undertakings, public and private. Mr. Wead was enterprising, progressive, sound in judgment, scrupulously correct and honest, deeply interested in the general welfare, and in a business aspect the foremost citizen that the county ever had. He was apt to be a bit domineering at times, but at heart was kind and in general association with friends and neighbors interesting and genial. His character was unsullied, and pettiness or meanness utterly foreign to him. Mr. Wead's second wife was Mary Kasson, a remarkable woman, possessed of great strength of character and endowed with exceptional intellectual qualities. She was preceptress of Franklin Academy in 1813, and, outliving her husband by a number of years, made in 1881 a Christmas gift to the village school district of the fine library building on Elm street as a memorial to her husband and son, Colonel Wead, which was "dedicated to the use of the public for the promotion of knowledge and morality." Mr. Wead died May 11, 1876.

Frederic Fuller Wead, born in Malone January 26, 1835, worked in his youth in the railroad machine shops as an apprentice for nearly a year, and, then resuming his studies, was graduated at Union College, studied law, was admitted to the bar, and practiced the profession until the outbreak of the civil war. He entered the Union Army in May, 3861, as first lieutenant of Co. I of the 16th regiment, but was soon transferred to staff duty as aide-de-camp to General Slocum. In 1862 he was commissioned lieutenant-colonel of the 98th regiment, and eventually to the colonelcy. At Cold Harbor he was severely wounded in the shoulder, but, in defiance of the surgeon's prohibition, persisted in returning to the field the next day, and was killed while leading his men in a charge. He was an ardent patriot and a daring and capable soldier. With keen perceptions, a clear mind and sound judgment, and a fluent and eloquent speaker, Colonel Wead was one of the most brilliant and promising men of the county. He was killed June 3, 1864.

Leslie C. Wead, born in Malone February 17, 1851, was a graduate of Franklin Academy and Dartmouth College. He was admitted to the bar in 1873, and engaged in practice at Malone until 1890. He was also closely identified with a number of manufacturing and other commercial enterprises, and never lost opportunity to suggest, advocate and promote courses of action that were calculated to increase the number and importance of the town's industries and its welfare generally — especially its educational and moral conditions. Mr. Wead removed to Boston in 1890, and engaged there for twenty years in the business of real estate broker and agent. From 1910 until his death he acted as trustee in the management of various real estate trusts and as an expert on valuations of properties taken by the city or damaged in the construction of public improvements. His business standing in Boston was high, and his judgment and advice were widely sought in matters that he had made his specialty, and were greatly respected. Mr. Wead died in Boston March 16, 1918.

Jonathan Wallace, born in Essex county, was a participant in the battle of Plattsburgh, and came to Fort Covington in 1815, where he was prominent for forty years in all matters affecting the town, and had a good standing at the bar. Except for a break of two years he was a justice of the peace continuously from 1818 to 1856, was supervisor in 1840, and a Presidential elector the same year. As a practitioner he was rated as somewhat timid and hesitating, but usually sound in his advice and conclusions. He died June 14, 1856.

George H. Wood, a descendant of one of the first settlers, was born in Malone in 1817, and became principal of Franklin Academy, and afterward, until 1851, a practicing lawyer here. In 1851 he removed to Wisconsin, where he continued to practice for a number of years, and then went to the Colorado gold fields. There he perfected an invention of value in mining, which he sold for a moderate fortune, but was robbed the day before he had planned to start East, and left penniless. He then located for two or three years in Illinois, and in 1868 returned to Malone, and made his home here until he died January 18, 1898.

Charles C. Whittelsey, born in Connecticut in 1818, came to Northern New York in his young manhood, after having acquired large landed interests in Bangor. He identified himself with Malone about 1850, engaged in the foundry business and in the manufacture of woolen cloth, and for many years was one of the town's principal citizens. He died March 5, 1889.

Horatio P. Wilson, born in Bangor in 1824, was always a farmer except during his army service in the civil war, in which he rose to be a captain in the 142d regiment. He was struck by a fragment of shell, suffering a spinal injury which caused paralysis of the legs. For thirty vears he never knew a painless hour, and only an indomitable will kept him up. For all of his crippled condition and suffering, he was remarkably active, both in business and in politics. He was superintendent of the poor for six years. He died April 22, 1894.

Wallace H. Webster, born in Constable March 27, 1827, was for .several years in trade at Trout River, with his brother, Edwin A., as partner, and also for a time with Edwin L. Meigs. In 1860 he removed to Malone, where he continued the mercantile business, and then bought the tannery which he and his brothers operated for thirty-odd years. Mr. Webster was a partisan of the extremest sect, of the Democratic persuasion, and gave unsparingly of time and effort to his party's service. No man was ever more loyal to his friends, and locally he was public spirited and one of .the best of citizens. He died June 28. 1892.

Sylvester S. Willard, born in Middlebury, Vt., in 1830, came to Malone in 18o3 or 1854, studied law, and was admitted to the bar; but himself recognizing his lack of assertiveness and disbelieving his adaptability to the practice of the profession, made little use of his really superior accomplishments until after his return from service in the civil war as a captain in the 98th regiment. He was elected soon afterward justice of the peace, and until his death was practically the only magistrate in the town who was active in such capacity. He soon came to be appreciated as having one of the best minds and as one of the best judges of law in the county. Mr. Willard was also an officer in the internal revenue service, and was elected school commissioner in 1875. Disdaining to lift even a hand to gain a second term, he was not re-elected, though his service had been excellent. He died October 11, 1890.

Parrit B. Wolf, born at Fort Covington in 1826, was a hotel keeper at Bangor from 1859 until the outbreak of the civil war, when he raised a company, and went out as a captain in the 98th regiment. After the war he located in Malone, and continued to reside here until 1877, when he was appointed to a government clerkship in Washington, where he died January 14, 1890.

A. A. Wilbur, born in Keeseville in 1834, located in St. Lawrence county before the civil war, and came to Constable in 1864 to engage in the practice of medicine. He was active in politics as a Republican, and influential in all local affairs. He died August 3, 1888.

Walter H. Winchester, born in Malone March 20, 1844, served in the Union army during the civil war, and after his return completed his course at Franklin Academy, and was graduated at Amherst College. He then became principal of Fort Covington Academy, and studied law while he was teaching. After practicing at Fort Covington for a few years with only indifferent success, he removed to North Dakota in 1885, and, open, hail-fellow-well-met, and without a single vicious habit, found the West a field wherein he was at home and bound to make his mark. He was elected district superintendent of schools almost at once, and soon afterward district judge for a district comprising ten counties — continuing by successive re-elections to hold the latter office until his death. He died at Bismarck March 6, 1913.

Charles H. Young, born at Bleeker, Fulton county, November 26, 1857, located at St. Regis Falls with his parents in 1866, and continued to make that place his home until 1896. At an early age Mr. Young became active in business, engaging in merchandising and lumbering, working as a surveyor, etc., and evincing interest in all of the civic and political affairs of the locality. He served the town as supervisor for a number of years, and was an efficient worker for the Republican party. Mr. Young removed to Texas in 1896 to represent two land and timber companies of New York city in developing and marketing their Texas properties, and is still interested himself in a small way in oil wells there. Since 1912 he has made Malone his home, though still representing his former Texas employees in special transactions. Mr. Young has a remarkable fund of general information, and a sound and keen business judgment.